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development. The lower storey of the modern temple which, though most commonly square, is occasionally, as in the Madan Mohan example, an octagon and therefore a near approach to a circle, is represented by the masonry plinth of the relic-mound; the high curvilinear roof by the swelling contour of the earthen hill, and the pinnacle with its peculiar base by the Buddhist rails and umbrella on the top of a Dagoba. From the original stúpa to the temple of Parsvanáth at Khajraha, of the 11th century, the towers of Madan Mohan and Jugal Kishor at Brindaban of the 16th, and the temple of Vishveshvar at Banáras the gradation seems to be easy and continuous.

A description of the two Brindaban temples is given in the Journal for 1872 (pages 318-320), but it is only now that I have been able to get photographs taken of them.


4. The temple of Gobind Devà at Brindaban.

Mr. Fergusson in his Indian Architecture speaks of this temple as one of the most interesting and elegant in India, and the only one perhaps, from which a European architect might borrow a few hints." I should myself have thought that 'solemn' or 'imposing' was a more appropriate term than 'elegant' for so massive a building, and that the suggestions that might be derived from its study were 'many' rather than 'few'; but the criticism is at all events in intention a complimentary one. It is, however, unfortunate that the author of a book, which will long and deservedly be accepted as an authority, was not able to obtain more satisfactory information regarding so notable a chef d'oeuvre. The ground-plan that he supplies is extremely incorrect: for it gives in faint lines, as if destroyed, the choir, or jag-mohan, which happens to be in more perfect preservation than any other part of the fabric, and it entirely omits the two chapels that flank the cella on either side and are integral portions of the design. The cella itself is also omitted; though for this there was more excuse, since it was razed to the ground by Aurangzíb and not a vestige of it now remains beyond the rough rubble wall of the choir, to which it had been attached. The three towers, over the two side chapels and the dome in the centre of the nave, were certainly never erected. Those over the choir and the sacrarium were both finished, and of the former I annex a plan. Its restoration was completed last month, (March 1877) with the exception of the finial and a few stages below it, which had entirely perished, and which Sir John Strachey on that account would not allow me to replace, on the general principle that in all such cases the new work must be more or less conjectural and therefore untrustworthy.

As in the later temple of Rádhá Ballabh (described in the first section.

of this article) the triforium is a reproduction of Muhammadan design, while the work both above and below it is purely Hindu.* It should be noted however that the arches in the middle story are decorative only, not constructural: the spandrels in the head might be-and, as a fact, for the most part had been-struck out, leaving only the lintel supported on the straight jambs, without any injury to the stability of the building.

Its restoration was commenced in September 1873, and has been carried on under my supervision, without any professional assistance, up to the present time. The cost was estimated, in the D. P. W., at Rs. 1,32,387, but for the comparatively modest sum of Rs. 38,365 I have been able to accomplish almost all that was ever intended to be done. I had applied for a small supplementary grant of Rs. 3,642; but if it is sanctioned, there will be no one on the spot to see it expended.†

5. The Sati Burj at Mathura.

This is a slender quadrangular tower of red sandstone which stands on the bank of the Jamuná, at the very heart of the modern city. It commemorates the Queen of Maharájá Bihár Mall of Jaypur, and was erected by her son, the Maharájá Bhagawán Dás, in the year 1570 A. D. The upper part, which had been destroyed long previously, was replaced about the beginning of the present century by an exceedingly ugly and incongruous plaster dome, which may help to preserve what remains of the original work, but quite destroys its architectural effect. The lower stories being also in a ruinous condition, I suggested to the reigning Maharájá that he should undertake its restoration as a family monument. It is not at all likely that the work will ever be set on foot; but the design that I had prepared for it may be deemed worthy of preservation. No small amount of time and thought was bestowed upon it, and I hope that architects will consider it both a pleasing object in itself and a probably faithful reproduction of the destroyed original.

Thus eclecticism, which after all is only natural growth directed by local circumstances, has for centuries past been the predominant characteristic of Mathurá architecture. In most of the new works that I have taken in hand, and notably in the Catholic Church, which I had commenced and now have to leave unfinished, I have conformed to the genius loci and have shewn my recognition of its principles, not by a servile imitation of older examples, but rather by boldly modifying them in accordance with special requirements and so developing novel combinations.

+ The grant has been sanctioned and the work is being carried on, under the supervision of the Executive Engineer in the Archæological Department, by the same local agency and the same body of stone-masons that I had collected and organized.

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