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9. The cool shade of a tree is sweet; and sweeter than the shadow of the tree is the shadow of thy family, thy father and thy mother; and sweeter than this is the shadow of the learned; and sweeter yet than this, is the shadow of the king: but very much more sweet is the sweetness of the law, that is called the shadow of the good God.
10. As the humble-bee desireth the flower, so loveth the righteous to be of good report: as the fly hankereth after all manner of rottenness, so longeth the wicked man after sin.
11. He that hath a wicked mother speaketh wickedness, and the son of a wicked father worketh wickedness: but if his father and his mother be both of them wicked, then both that which he saith and that which he doth becometh evil.
12. He that hath an excellent mother speaketh righteously, and the son of a good father worketh righteousness: if his father and his mother be both of them good then all that he saith and all that he doth becometh excellent.
13. There is need of the brave man in the place of battle: there is need of the skilful word in the time of wrath: the friend is wanted in the time of eating or if there be any trouble before thee, then there is need of the wise man.
14. When one dog seeth another he showeth his teeth that he may oppress him in the like manner when the wicked man seeth one that is righteous he vexeth him that he may cause him hurt.
15. In the beginning the foolish man of himself doeth not that which he hath to do, neither maketh he another man to do it: then doeth it carelessly in haste and sorroweth afterward.
16. In the world he that turneth away wrath is not troubled even for a little, and God, beside other good men, praiseth him that is grateful. It behoveth every one to be patient of the angry word, and him that is thus patient God, beside other good men, praiseth, saying, Behold! this man is good.
17. In the world he is miserable that must live in a narrow place full of uncleanness; and more miserable than he is he that must live among his enemies that love him not; but yet more than he is he miserable that must live amid the ungrateful.
18. Teach them continually that thou shouldest teach, and keep them alway from evil-doing. Is not this the good word? Let him that is instructed love the upright man that instructeth him, but let him not love the unjust man that is wicked.
19. Honour him that is greater than thou and thou shalt be rewarded: keep thou the brave separate one from the other and thou shalt conquer make thou a little present to him that is lesser than thou and thou
shalt win him: be thou diligent and thou shalt overcome him that is thine equal.
20. In the world not every one telleth of the poison, saying, This is poison; but of the goods of the priest they tell, saying, Truly this is poison: for the poison slayeth but once, but as for the goods of the priest they kill for ever.
21. By his swiftness is known the goodness of the horse: by the weight of his burden the goodness of the ox: by the much milk she giveth the goodness of the cow: and the wisdom of the wise man by the wisdom of his speech.
22. The riches of the just though they be little are like unto the water that is in the well, for they are a place of refuge unto all but the riches of the unjust though they be great are like unto the waters of the sea, for in them is no place of refuge neither for them that bathe nor for them that drink.
23. The rivers drink not of their own water, neither eat the trees of their own fruit, nor fall the rains in every place: likewise are the richest of the just man only for an help unto others.
24. Desire ye not that which ye should not desire, neither think ye that which ye should not think; but meditate ye carefully on the things that are,* loving not to make your time profitless.
25. Without endeavour it cometh and with endeavour it cometh not. Is not this word true? For the possession of riches cometh neither unto man nor unto woman according to their endeavour.
26. Whosoever loveth the wicked: whosoever loveth not the righteous: whosoever loveth only the law of the unjust by these things shall he be destroyed. Thus shall it be with him. Here endeth the book concerning them that are good.
1. Love not the wicked man greatly: it is as the pot thou bearest on thy head that is not full of water and maketh a noise.
2. The snake hath an evil temper and likewise hath the wicked man an evil temper, but the temper of the wicked man is more evil than the temper of the snake; for the temper of the snake is quieted by the charm, but how shall ye cure the temper of the wicked man?
3. When the foolish man knoweth his own foolishness, then, though he be foolish, shall he be called wise; but when the foolish man thinketh himself to be wise though he be still foolish, then shall they say of him, Verily this is a fool.
*Or of nature.
4. Whatsoever evil the foolish man doeth, it profiteth him not; and though he thinketh it to be even as honey, whensoever his evil deed prospereth then doth misery fall upon him.
5. The foolish man when he hath strength in his body becometh wicked and striveth after the goods of another by force: the foolish man that hath little wisdom when his body is destroyed goeth down into hell.
6. In the house it is the rat that maketh mischief: in the forest it is the monkey: among the birds it is the crow, and among men it is the teacher of false doctrines.*
7. The night seemeth long to the wakeful man: the way seemeth long unto him that journeyeth: likewise his life seemeth long to the foolish man that knoweth not the righteous law.
8. The man that hath an evil mind seeth the fault of another though it be only as a sesamum seed: but though his own fault be as a cocoanut, he seeth it not.
9. If thou wouldest be wise show not thy fault unto another, but strive to learn his fault. Wherefore should this be so? Hide thy faults as the turtle draweth in his head and his members, but mark well the faults of others,
When the foolish man praiseth the wise, it is called chiding, but if the wise man praiseth the wise, then is it called praise indeed.
11. Make a present and thou shalt win the covetous: bow down before him and thou shalt win the haughty: follow after him† and thou shalt win the foolish: speak the truth and thou shalt win the wise. Here endeth the book concerning them that are wicked and foolish.
1. If a stranger work for thine advantage then is he as thy brother, and if thy brother work not for thine advantage then is he as a stranger: so the sickness that is part of thee‡ is not for thy profit, but the medicine that cometh from the desert§ profiteth thee greatly.
2. He that speaketh slightingly behind thy back, but speaketh kindly to thy face; shun thou him as a friend that hath such an heart, as the bee avoideth the poison that is in the pot.
3. If thy riches decrease thy friends cast thee off; likewise desert thee thy wife, thy children, and thy brethren; only will they shelter them under thy riches: wherefore in the world thy greatest friend is thy wealth.
4. In the world thou canst only know thy servant if he be good or bad when thou usest him: so only canst thou know thy brethren in the Or within thy body. § Or forest.
* Or Pôngnâ or the Brahmin.
time of danger: so canst thou know thy friends when thy riches are few: so canst thou know thy wife when thy wealth is fled.
5. Whosoever increaseth thy prosperity call him thy friend: whosoever giveth thee food call him thy father and thy brother: whosoever loveth thee him also call thy friend: and whosoever being happy maketh thee happy call thy wife.
6. Make not a great friend of thine enemy, neither make close acquaintance with thy friend, for when they are angry they will discover thy faults.
7. Whosoever hath once quarrelled with his friend if he wish to be one with him again, he must pursue him unto death,* as the mare doth that is with young.
8. So long as thy desire be not fulfilled bear thine enemy on thy shoulder: but when the time of the fulfilment of thy desire cometh, then destroy thou him as thou wouldest break the pot thou carriest against the rock.
9. That which remains of thy debt: that which remains of the fire: those also that remain of thine enemies often times increase again: therefore leave thou none remaining.
10. Whosoever hath a face as fair as the water-lily: whose speech is sweet as the sandal-wood, and whose mind is as the poison that slayeth quickly: put not thy trust in such an one.
11. Trust not the master that is rough: still less put thy trust in the master that is quick to anger: still less in him that praiseth not: still less in him that is an oppressor.
12. Keep the thing that is horned fifty cubits from thee: keep the horse one hundred cubits from thee: keep the elephant that hath tusks one thousand cubits from thee: keep the bad man from thee altogether.
13. An evil abode; a wicked husband; a wicked people; a wicked friend; a wicked wife; a bad servant: these must be kept afar off.
14. Whatsoever friend cometh forward when thou art oppressed with sickness; when thou art an-hungered; when thou losest thy wealth; when thou art in the hands of thine enemy; when thou art before the king; when thou art in the place of sepulture: only such a friend canst thou call a friend indeed.
15. Whosoever speaketh fair words hath many friends, but the harsh man hath but few. Seest thou not here the parable of the sun and the moon? Here endeth the book concerning friendship.
*Or the kingdom of death.
1. The beauty of the black cuckoo is his voice: the beauty of a woman is her love for her husband: the beauty of the uncomely is their knowledge, and the beauty of the priest is his long-suffering.
2. The wealth of a woman lieth in her beauty: of a man in his knowledge of a priest in his well-doing of a king in the strength of his armies.
3. A priest is comely if he be lean, as a four-footed beast is comely when he is fat: so a man becometh comely when he is wise and a woman when she hath an husband.
4. Be the harper never so good, if he play not on the harp for five days only his skill is fled; be the archer never so skilful if he shoot not with the bow for seven days his cunning deserteth him: so the honour of a wife if she be a month separate from her husband is destroyed, and the disciple is lost if he be but half a month from his master.
5. The buffalo rejoiceth when he is in the mud, and the red duck when he is in the lake: so the woman rejoiceth when she hath an husband, and the priest when he doth according to the law.
6. Thou mayest praise the corn* after thou hast eaten of it, so thou mayest praise thy wife when she is become old: so likewise thou mayest praise the army when it returneth home after the enemy is conquered, and thy grain after thou hast stored it in thy barns.
7. The woman that hath been put away from two or three husbands ; the scholar that hath learned in two or three schools; and the bird that hath escaped twice or thrice from the net knoweth well the way thereof.
8. Tame the wicked by beating: tame the bad husband by firm words: tame the bad wife by keeping away the money from her, and the greedy man by making him an-hungered.
9. The night that hath no moon is not good to look upon; nor the sea that hath no waves; nor the lake that is without wild-ducks; nor the damsel that is without an husband.
10. It is the husband that should bring the riches, and it is the wife that should keep them. Is not this saying true? For it is the man that should be the leader of the woman as the needle is of the thread.
11. Every river is crooked: every forest is full of fire-wood: every woman when she is in a quiet place doeth evil.
The woman that is a disputer; that is envious and a backbiter that is covetous of whatsoever she seeth; that cooketh much and eateth of it; that eateth before her husband; that goeth abroad to other's houses :
*Or the rice.
† Or be the beginner or the original cause.