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rukhsiyar (1713—1718) entered the service of Nawáb Muhammad Khán as Munshi or Secretary. The period of his death is not known. His grandson, Dalpat Ráe, held the same office and played a prominent part in the time of Nawáb Muzaffar Jang (1771-1796) and Násir Jang (1796-1813).
The next in order of time and perhaps of value, is a work by Sayyad Hisám-ud-din Sháh Gwáliári. His grandfather, Abu'l Hasan, was sister's son and son-in-law to the saint Muhammad Ghaus Gwáliári. Hisámud-din came to Farrukhábád in Muhammad Khán’s time (before 1743) and served as a yakka or adventurer riding his own horse. He was present at the siege of Allahábád (Oct. 1750 to April 1751), the siege of Fathgarh (April-May 1751), and the campaign in Rohilkhand (Oct. 1751-April 1752). He became a Fakir and died in 1210 H. (July 1795-July 1796).
His book is of little value till he comes to the battle of November 1748, in which Káim Khán lost his life. From that time till the death of Ahmad Khán in 1771 the narrative is full and interesting. The style is clear and graphic with little attempt at literary effect, and I think he fully deserves Mufti Wali-ullah's praise of trustworthiness. The MS. was lent to me by Mír Fazl 'Ali from the Madrasa library of Mufti Waliullah. It measures 7 in. × 5 in. and has 393 pages of 11 lines to the page. It is divided into the following headings-Muhammad Khán and Ķáim Jang, pp. 4-54-Imám Khán succeeds, fine to Emperor paid, Imám Khán imprisoned, Bibi Sáhiba escapes; pp. 54-89—Ahmad Khán, death of Naval Ráe, defeat of Wazír, siege of Allahábád, pp. 89-150—Return of the Wazír, Ahmad Khán goes to Rohilkhand, pp. 150-226—Ahmad Khán retreats under the Hills and gets aid from the Rájah of Almora, pp. 226-249—The Wazir with the Mahrattas arrives and besieges Ahmad Khán, pp. 249-264––Interview between Ahmad Khán and the Rájah, the Wazir makes peace and takes the Nawáb's son with him towards Lakhnau, pp. 264-313-Ahmad Khán and his chiefs, with the Rohelas, march from the entrenchment, Ahmad Khán comes to Farrukhábád, pp. 313-340Marriage of Muzaffar Jang, pp. 340-353-The Wazír brings the Emperor (Sháh ’Alam) to attack Ahmad Khán, pp. 353-393.
The next in order of date is Mufti Wali-ullah's Tarikh-i-Farrukhábád written about 1245 H. (July 1829-June 1830). Sayyad Wali-ullah, son of S. Ahmad 'Ali (who died 1187 H.=1773 A. D. aged 51), was born at Sándi, Sirkár Khairábád, on the 14th Shawwal 1165 H. (26th August, 1752). The family had been settled for ten generations at Sándi, about twentysix miles south-east of Farrukhábád, on the other side of the Ganges. Before that, ten generations had lived at Dáipur, just east of Kanauj and close to the Ganges. The founder of the colony there is said to have come from Láhor.
When he was nine years of age, Wali-ullah came with his father to
Farrukhábád. He studied at Farrukhábád, Kanauj and Bareli, finishing under 'Abd-ul Básit Kanauji. In 1189 H. (March 1775-Feb. 1776), while on his way to Mecca, he visited the town of Rahmatábád in the eastern part of the Dakhin, where he was initiated into the Nakshbandi and Kádiriya tenets by Khwaja Rahmat-ullah. In 1190 H. (Feb. 1776—Feb. 1777) he spent six months at the holy places. Returning to India he at length in 1196 H. (Dec. 1781-Dec. 1782) settled at Farrukhábád. From his savings he bought several houses, and joining them together he established a madrassa and named it Fakhr-ul Maraba o Raba'-ul Mufákhir, which gives the date 1224 H. (Feb. 1809-Feb. 1810). His library is still kept there, but there are no scholars and nothing is taught. On the 29th August, 1805, he was appointed Mufti, which office he held till the 13th October, 1828, when he was succeeded by his relation, Mufti Wilayat-ullah. Wali-ullah died on the 5th Jamádi II, 1249 (18th Nov., 1833). The following tarikhs give the year of his death. The first is by Bahadur 'Ali Sayyad.
I. Ganj-i-ma'ni ba-raft zer zamín.
II. Dafan kardand ganj-i-ilm ba-khák.
One of the copies of his history lent me by Mír Fazl 'Ali measures 10 in. × 63 in., and has 370 pages, the number of lines to a page varies. The book is divided into two parts. Part I, History of Farrukhábád and the Bangash family (160 pp.) containing an introduction and six books, the first book comprising five chapters. Part II: divided into five books, (1) Famous personages; (2), Shekhs, Sayyads, and Faķírs; (3), Learned men ; (4), Poets, and (5) an account of the author. In the historical part there is little or no detail, much being taken from the Siyar-ul Mutákharín and similar works, though some facts are added from personal knowledge or enquiry. The most valuable part is, that giving the traditional origin of the Bangash Paṭháns. About two-thirds of the work is taken up with biographies of obscure Muhammadan worthies who lived in, or had visited Farrukhábád.*
The Lauḥ-i-Túrikh is an Urdú work which in its present shape was composed in 1255 H. (March 1839-March 1810). Mír Bahádur 'Ali's copy, lent me by his nephew Salámat 'Ali of Chibramau, measures 9 in. × 6 in., and has 554 pages, with 16 to 18 lines to the page. It is written in an easy popular style, and though defective in chronology and arrangement, it preserves a mass of interesting tradition which would otherwise have perished.
The origin of the book is thus described: In 1248 H. (May 1832-May 1833) Manavvar 'Ali Khán Bakhshi, great-grandson of Muhammad Khan's daughter, Daulat Khátun, began to prepare an account of Farrukhábád and
*He was the author of several other works.
its rulers from the work of Mufti Wali-ullah and other books, such as the Khulásah-i-Bangash, but more especially from the recollections of an old man, Allahdád Khán, son of Mukím Khán chela. Two copies of this work were given away, one to Nawáb Diláwar Jang, son of Nawáb Husain 'Ali Khán, and the other to Dharm Dás, Káyath Kharowah. Neither of these copies can be found now, although search has been made.
Manavvar 'Ali Khán says, that as he had neither practice in the Urdú language nor the habit of literary composition, he made his book over to Mír Bahadur 'Ali to be put into shape. Bahádur 'Ali returned it corrected in 1255 H. (March 1839-March 1840) with additions from his own knowledge. To the amended work were given the titles of Anwán-i Khándáni-Bangash or Lauḥ-i-Tárikh. A poetical táríkh, giving the year 1255 H., is as follows:
"Kyá baní hai, miyan, yih khúb kitáb."
The book is divided into eight parts, besides the introduction. I. Nawáb Muhammad Khán, Ghazanfar Jang. II. N. Kám Khán. III. N. Ahmad Khán, Ghálib Jang. IV. N. Daler Himmat Khán, Muzaffar Jang. V. N. Imdád Husain Khán, Násir Jang. VI. N. Khádim Husain Khán, Shaukat Jang. VII. N. Tajammul Husain Khán, Zafar Jang, VIII Chap. 1, Biography of Manavvar 'Ali Khán; Chap. 2, Biography of Mír Bahádur 'Ali.
Manavvar 'Ali Khán, born in 1799, was the son of Sarfaráz 'Ali Khán, Ustarzai Karláni Pathán. His great-grandfather, Khudádád Khán, had married Daulat Khátun, the ninth daughter of Nawáb Muhammad Khán, Ghazanfar Jang. On his grandmother's death in 1809, his father gave up all her jágírs, but Manavvar 'Ali Khán in 1839 still received 200 rupees a year from Sarfaráz Mahal, widow of Násir Jang, to whom the property had been assigned. Manavvar 'Ali Khán died on the 13th Sha'ban 1280, H. (24th August, 1863).
Mír Bahádur 'Ali was a Sayyad of Chibramau, a small town on the Grand Trunk Road, about eighteen miles from Farrukhábád. He claims to be descended from the eldest son of Zain-ul 'Abidain, who left Madína and settled in Turmaz. Some of his descendants were long settled near Láhor, but gradually moving eastwards they reached, some five hundred years ago, the town of Chibramau, Sirkár Kanauj, Súbah Akbarábád. It is said that once seventy to eighty families existed, occupying three muhallas, but for the last two or three hundred years these have disappeared. Now-a-days there is only one small muhalla, with five or seven families of Sayyads. During the Mughul rule the male members of these families sought employment at Delhi as Kázis, Muftís, religious officers, Díwáns, writers or revenue-collectors. The absence of a genealogical table is apologized for by Bahádur 'Ali,in his biography. Owing to the unsettled times. and the occurrence of several Mahratta incursions and village raids (Gan
wár Gardi) the records of his ancestors had been destroyed. From signatures in books in his possession, he traces his family for six generations. His father and grandfather used to say the Chibramau Sayyads were among the descendants of Sayyad Kamál, who came down country from Láhor. One of his sons S. 'Ali Amjad settled in Chibramau, the others went to Samdhan, Parganah Tálgrám, to a village near Kanauj, to the town of Tálgrám, to Sándí, to Márahra and to Sakaṭpur. Bahádur 'Ali's ancestors, some openly and some secretly, were all Shi'as in religion.
Bahadur 'Ali's grandfather, Ghulam Husain, was born, he asserts, in 1101 H. (Oct. 1689—Sept. 1690) and he died in 1226 H. (Jan. 1811—Jan. 1812). He had only two sons, Chirágh 'Ali and Hashmat 'Ali (b. 1182, May 1768— May 1769, d. 1231 H. Dec. 1815-Nov. 1816). The grandfather was at one time in the service of Najíb Khán and Shuja'-ud-daula, from the former receiving Rs. 125 and from the latter Rs. 100 a month. For forty years he was in the service of Nawáb Dám Khán, chela of Nawáb Ahmad Khán, first as a trooper on Rs. 80, then as a physician on Rs. 50, then as a pensioner on Rs. 20 a month. At last he was made teacher, on Rs. 10 a month, to the Nawab's sons and wife. Till near the end of his life, he lived at the gateway of Dáim Khán's house in Farrukhábád. Five or six years before his death, when he became very feeble, his son and grandson persuaded him to remove to Chibramau, where he died on the 27th Ramzan, 1226 H. on the day of the Diváli festival. Bahádur 'Ali believed his grandfather could perform miracles, and relates a story of his appearing in a dream to a sick man, and telling him to gather grass from his tomb, which when ground was to be applied to the chest. An instantaneous cure was the result.
Bahádur 'Ali's father, Chirágh 'Ali, was born in 1157 H. (Feb. 1744— Jan. 1745). When twenty-five years of age he became blind. He retained, however, his bodily strength, and was endowed with great quickness of understanding and power of repartee. His touch was so fine, that he could tell the wrong from the right side of a rupee. He possessed a great talent for planning buildings; and he also practised physic, as he had learnt it from his father, Ghulám Husain. His memory was wonderfully good, and he remembered the details of every body's family history in all the country round Chibramau. He died on the 4th Ramzán, 1247 H. (6th Feb. 1832) Bahadur 'Ali's mother's people lived at Bhonganw, a town on the Grand Trunk Road in the Mainpuri district, about 22 miles west of Chibramau. She was the second daughter of Shekh Khalil-ur-rahmán Khátib, son of Shekh Khair-ullah Khátib.
Bahadur 'Ali was born on the 20th Shawwál 1195 H. (9th Oct. 1781). In 1201 H. (Oct. 1786-Oct. 1787), his grandfather brought him to Farrukhábád to live at the gateway of Nawáb Dáim Khán chela. He was taught there for six years. He read through the usual Persian books and
wrote daily some composition for his teacher's correction. Mir Makhú Fakir was engaged to teach him writing. A few books on grammar and physic were read and the whole word of God; to this was added some arithmetic. It was also his habit to visit the holy and religious men of that time, whom he names. Once Háfiz Ghulám Muhammad condescended to go over a chapter of the Ķurán with him.
When Bahadur 'Ali had completed his twelfth year, his uncle Hashmat 'Ali came home from Lakhnau. He had lived in that city for fifteen years as a teacher in the family of Lála Lachman Singh and Lála Budh Singh, Sarsút Bráhmans, employed in the service of Rájah Tikait Ráe, Náib. In 1207 H. (Aug. 1792-Aug. 1793) Hashmat 'Ali, taking Bahadur 'Ali with him, returned to Lakhnau. The boy was made over to Mír Sájid 'Ali, a great friend of his uncle's, who followed the profession of a teacher. After a year had passed, Bahadur 'Ali was sent to read grammar with Maulvi Kamál Ahmad Shahjahanpuri; and in order to gain an acquaintance with the poets, he frequented Maulvi Pír 'Ali Rasúlpuri. For a short time he also attended Maulvi Ghulám Muhammad, Fáik, Amethawi, who conferred on him the poetical title of Núr. A desire to write poetry having sprung up in him, he asked his uncle to introduce him to Miyan Ghulám Hamdáni Mashafi, whose instructions he followed for several years. Here he took the names of Gardish and Wámik. It was at this time that he wrote a Persian diwán entitled Juwálá-i-'Ishķ. He also attended the poetical assemblies held every fortnight at the houses of Miyan Jurát, Inshállah Khán, Mír Takki, Miyán Mashafi, Shahzádah Sulaimán Shikoh, Miyán Muntazar and others. On these occasions he recited ghazals under both the above titles in Persian and Urdu.
For the eleven years, ending in 1217, H. (May 1802-April 1803), which he spent in Lakhnau, Bahádur 'Ali to provide for his own support worked as a teacher at various places. He was also for a time a trooper in the Nawáb Wazír's service, in the time of Asaf-ud-daula (1775-1798) and Sa'dat 'Ali Khán (1798–1813). Farrukhábád having been taken over by the English, Bahádur 'Ali returned to his home in the end of 1217, H. and for a long period supported himself as a teacher. At length he was appointed tutor to Rájah Jaswant Singh, Baghela Thákur, of Tirwa in the south-east of the Farrukhábád district, on a salary of Rs. 8 a month, plus the food of two persons, besides presents. Through the Rájah's influence he obtained the appointment of Thánadár of Chibramau, which he held for two years. Afterwards, at the Rájah's request, he acted as Wakil for him and his brother, Kunwar Pítam Singh, at Mainpuri, Bareli, and Fathgarh, in the office of the Collector, the Civil Courts, the Revenue Board's Office, and the Court of Appeal.