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On the death of his patron abovenamed,” Bahádur 'Ali lost his appointment and went to live in Farrukhābād, There for some years he taught the children at the house of Lála Daler Singh, Kāyath Sribàstab, “Chaoni-wala ;” and subsequently he was for some years in the service of Ráe Chandi Parshād, Kāyath Saksena, of muhalla Sadhwárá. For two years he was with Mr. Martin, Indigo-planter, on Rs. 15 a month, as a parwānawavis at the Shamshābād factory; then for a year and a half he was employed on Rs. 20 a month in the Joint-Magistrate's Court at Sidhpura (now part of the Eta district). He was recommended by Munshi Zahūr ‘Ali 'Abbási Shekhpuri. When the Court was abolished,f he went for three years to Lakhnau, where he obtained various employments, as a writer at the Daryábád Thána, forty-three miles east of Lakhnau, as accountkeeper to a merchant, and for part of the time as a teacher. On his return he again became a teacher at Farrukhābād. In 1839 when he wrote, he had been for some years living at the gate of Lála Dil Sukh Ráe, the son, and Lála Shankar Parshād, the grandson of the deceased Diwán Debi Dás. During this period, hundreds, old and young, had been his pupils; but not one had done him any service, or turned out a real friend, or shown any affection, nor had even one been true to his word. He says he had no complaints to make nor any claims. Indeed he was accustomed not even to go down the street, where such ungrateful men dwelt. Bahádur 'Ali was married on the 7th Zi'lhajj 1220, H. (28th Feb. 1806) to the daughter of Shekh Karm-ullah of Shamshābād, son of Asadullah Farūki. The family had a quantity of land and groves, granted by the Emperors, with yearly and daily allowances. In the disorders of the time, all these came unjustly into the possession of S. Tahawvar 'Ali Kabáe. Bahádur 'Ali's father-in-law, his uncle Siffat-ullah, and Shekh Khūb-ullah, another relation, made great exertions to recover the property, but “ba-sa“bab-nā-ānsās; aur rādāgā kākāmān-i-Farrukhábád ke, apne déd awr hakk “ko na pahunche.” The younger branches of the family scattered to Tálgrám, Sakráwah, and Chibramau. Dahádur 'Ali had no issue ; but, as he says, this being a matter out of one's power, he indulged in no regrets. He passed his days in reading, in recitations of poetry, in teaching, in reading aloud, and in the writing of books. And he failed not to give God thanks for his mercies; Harcha, Sáká-à-mé rescht, 'ain altáf ast.” FIe furnishes a list of thirteen works composed by him, besides short tales. The thirteenth is the History of Farrukhābād called 'Anwān-i* Rájah Jaswant Singh diod on the 3rd Oct. 1815, being succeeded by his brother

Pitam Singh, who died 11th November, 1835–IKali Ráe, pp. 149, 150. # The Sirhpura Joint-Magistracy oxisted from 1816 to 1828, Gaz, N. W. P., IV,

pp. 3, 4,

Rhándān-i-Bangash or Lawh-i-Tărăkh. From about 1814 or 1819 he adopted the poetical title of “Sayyad.” He also wrote in Hindi (Bhākhá) in the name of Manhi. He says he intended his books to be a memorial of him after his death, and he hoped that they would take the place of children. In their composition he passed his days very happily. From the day that he began to Write, he claims mever to have written, with an object, in praise of any noble, nor had lie sought their favours. He refused the invitations of the Sáhibzádahs of the city, for with worldly persons there can be but two objects Káida or Fáida, and when neither is desired there can be no reason to court the great. He prays that God may grant him similar independence during the small remains of life—“Amin Sam Asmin.” From 1225, H. (Feb. 1810–Jan. 1811) with the help of his second brother, Muhammad ‘Ali, he observed the ceremonies of Túzia'dóri yearly ; he belonged to the Shi'a sect. As his home did not afford the requisite accommodation, he bought half an acre of land at his door, intending to build an Imāmbárá and a dwelling-house. He managed to complete a small dwelling-house, and the masonry foundations of the Imāmbárá were laid on the 13th Muharrum 1241, H. (30th August, 1825). But from poverty he had been unable to proceed with it ; he writes that he hopes it may be finished before he dies, so that his soul may rest in his grave in peace. His father was buried at his own request in an earthen tomb within the Imāmbárá. Bahádur 'Ali himself died on the 30th Sha'bān 1270, H. (28th May, 1854). There is a small work called Mahárbát-i Mughuliya ba-Afghāniya, a copy of which was kindly procured for me by Maulvi Manzúr Ahmad, Deputy Collector (to whom I am also indebted for first calling my attention to the Lawh-i-Tärikh). So much of it is in verse, and the rest is in such a bombastic ambitious style, that the residue of fact is very small. Still, although the date of the copy is January, 1834 (the author's and owner's names have been carefully obliterated), I infer that its composition is of older date, or that independent sources were employed, for it contains a few statements not met with elsewhere. The MS. measures 93 in. × 64 in. and has 101 pages of 14 lines to the page. I have also picked up twenty-six leaves of a collection of reports from some Lakhnau amil in the years 1162 —1164 H. From internal evidence I believe the writer to be Nawāb Bakā-ullah Khán, Khān ‘Alam, faujdar of Korá. I have gleaned from these letters a few facts about Naval Ráe's death and the subsequent events. The first mine leaves and some leaves at the end are wanting. The Khulásah-i-Bangash, apparently almost contemporary with Muhammad Khám (1713–1743), is quoted once in the Lawh-i-Tärikh.

Neither of this book nor of a collection of letters made by Munshi Dalpat Ráe (d. 28th March, 1823), grandson of Munshi Sáhib Ráe, have I been able to obtain any trace. Other authorities used are well enough known. The principal of these are the Siyar-ul-Mutd/charin, Tārīkh-i-Muzaffari, Khizànah-i-'A'mira, Asmād-us-Sa'dat, Life of Hāfiz Rahmat Khán, Futhgarh-nāmah Curwen's translation of the Balwant-nāmah and the Māftāh-ut Thwárikh (edition of 1849). The Ma'asir-ul Umrå in the article 'Abd-ul Mansior Khán, when speaking of Káim Khán's death, refers for details to “the account of his father Muhammad Khán Bangash”, but I cannot find in the book any biography of Muhammad Khán. The Hadikat-ul Akālām, of Murtaza Husain, I have also put under contribution.

Origin of the family.

Muhammad Khán was a Bangash of the Karláni Kāghzai clan. Malak Kais, 'Abd-ur-Rashīd, the ancestor of all Patháns, had three sons Sarban, IBatan, Ghurghasht. The second son, whose name was Shekh Haiyát, obtained his appellation from his love of peace and his piety, Batan in their language signifying the Pure. Batan had three sons, Ismā'il, Ashyān, Kajín, and one daughter, Matú. The descendants of the sons are usually called Batan. The children of Matú by her husband, Sháh Husain, son of Mu’az-ud-din, are called Ghilzai, Lodi, Sarwāni.

Sarban, the eldest son of Kais, had two sons, the elder of whom, Sharfud-din, had five sons. Of these the youngest was Amir-ud-din. One day while out hunting Amir-ud-din at one of his camping-places picked up a Sayyad boy, to whom he gave the name of Karláni. When he grew up he was married to a woman of the tribe, and his children were called the Karlāni. Among Karlánis are the Dilázák, Afridi, Khatak, and Malak-mírí subdivisions. Relying on the truth of the above story, the Karláni believe themselves to be Sayyads. Karláni having been brought up with Adarmar, son of Amir-ud-din, his descendants have been classed among the Sarban tribes.

The origin of the name Kághzai is related as follows. Once Shekh Hayāt, alias Batan, was anxious to marry his daughter Matú to Sháh Husain, son of Mu’az-ud-din Mahmūd, son of Jamál-ud-din Hasan, son of Sultán Bahrām, who had left his own country of Ghor by reason of the desolation caused by the first Muhammadan invasions. Accordingly a man of the Kágh tribe, that is, a professional singer, was sent to enquire into the genealogy of Sháh Husain at Ghor, his birthplace. On returning he threatened to throw doubt on Sháh Husain's purity of descent unless his, Kágh's, daughter were accepted in marriage. Sháh Husain married the girl, who was called Mihi, and also Sarw. Having no children, she adopted a son of her co-wife Matú, and called him Sarwāni. By reason of this adoption he came to be called Kāghzai. The word Bangash originally meant the hill country. But in course of time it was applied to the inhabitants, those in the upper hills being called Bálá Bangash, those in the country along the foot of those hills, that is, in Kohát, were known as the Páin Bangash. At present the Bangash tribe is most numerous in Kohát, the rest dwell to the west of it, in Káram and Shalázám. The valley of the Bangash is encircled by hills, and its greatest length is from east to west. To the east and south-east is found the Khatak tribe in the hills of Khatkäm ; to the north are the Urakzais ; to the south-west is the boundary of the Waziris; to the west is the country of Káram. The Bangash who live in Káram and Paiwár are in subjection to the Tori ; those in Shaluzām are their own masters; while those in Kohát are British subjects. In all they number about eighteen thousand households. * Years after the first settlement took place, many of the Sarwānis quitted the Bálá Bangash, and from that time were designated Kāghzai, those who stayed in their original seat continuing to be called Sarwāni. After this a party of Karläni, who had settled near the Sarwānī Kāghzai in the Bálá Bangash, also began to be called Kāghzai, though in truth they are neither Sarwāmi nor the children of Kāgh. In short, there are two kinds of Kāghzai, (1) Karlámi Kāghzai and (2) Sarwāni, Kāghzai. In the reign of ’Alamgir Aurangzeb (1658–1707), Malak 'Ain Khán Karláni Kāghzai, quitting his native country for Hindustán, came to MauRashīdābād, where he took service in the troop of 'Ain Khán Sarwāni, then in the employ of the Khánzádah family. Malak 'Ain Khán, son of Gohar Khán, son of Sabza Khán, son of Jahān Khán, son of Sárang Khán, belonged to the Harya Khail, in it to the Shāmilzai, and in it to the Daulat Khail, who are the descendants of Daulat Khán, known as Háji Bahádur. This latter must be distinguished from the other Háji Bahádur, the Koháti, of the family of Shekh Adam Banúrí. The town of Mau-Rashīdābād is now little more than a name ; its site has been turned into one vast tobacco-field. It lies close to the high bank, which overlooks the old bed of the Ganges and the stretch of lower land between it and the present stream. It is situated twenty-one miles west of Farrukhābād, five miles west of the old town of Shamshābād-Khor, and about one mile north-east of the modern but more thriving town of Káimganj. Though Mau has now only a few inhabitants, the country surrounding it is full of flourishing Pathán colonies, such as Ráepur, Pathaura, 'Ataipur; and the inhabitants of these places are all known outside the * Haiyat-i-Afghāni, p. 448.

district under the generic name of Mau Patháns. They are to be found in numbers in our native cavalry, where they appear to bear a high character as soldiers. Mau Rashīdābād, the former name of which was Mau-Thoriyá, was re-founded in the reign of Jahāngir about 1607, A. D. (1016, H.) by Nawāb Rashīd Khán, jágirdar of Shamshābād. A few of his descendants, known as JKhánzádahs, still exist though reduced to poverty.* The myth so common in the East is told to account for the selection of the site. Jackals drove off the Nawāb's dogs, and in his astonishment, he inferred that such a soil would produce men more brave and strong than found elsewhere.

JMuhammad Khán’s early years.

'Ain Khán married in Mau, and when he died left two sons, Himmat Rhán, aged thirteen, and Muhammad Khán, aged eleven. Since Muhammad IChán died in December, 1743, at about the age of eighty lunar years, his birth must have taken place about the year 1665. One day, the story goes, Muhammad Khán had ridden out on his elder brother's horse along the edge of the river, and he brought it back in a profuse sweat. Himmat Khán fearing that he would some day throw the horse down and get injured himself, gave Muhammad Khān a slight reproof. Angry at being spoken to, Muhammad Khán took refuge at a fakir’s hut. The fakir, to cheer him, prophesied that he would one day be a Bávan-Hazár or Commander of Fifty-two thousand. Himmat Khán, the elder brother, in time left home and took service in the Dakhin, where he died. His body is interred in Sher Muhammad Khán's bâgh in Mau, a grove which had been planted in the days of Nawāb Rashīd Khán. He left one daughter, Bibi Fátima, who became the wife of 'Ináyat 'Ali Khán, Bangash Kāghzai.

When Muhammad Khán reached the age of twenty years (i. e. about 1685, A. D.), he took service with Yasin Khán Bangash, then a leader of renown among the Patháns of Mau. In the month of October of every year, he started from Mau with four or five thousand men, horse and foot, and went across the Jamna. In those days the Rájahs of Bundelkhand were at incessant war with each other, and the trade of the soldier flourished. When any Rájah, who had a rebellious vassal to deal with, heard of Yasin Rhán's arrival, an agent would be sent to engage him to punish the rebel. The ordinary terms were one-fourth of the plunder or of the money obtained. When the agreement had been reduced to writing, payment of one half beforehand was demanded as Ajauri or money in advance. This sum was divided among the troops, so much to each horseman and so much to each footman. A march was then made against, the place designated, and it was surrounded. If the inhabitants fought, force was met by force ; if they asked for terms, a settlement was made.

* On Rashīd Khán and the Khánzádahs. Note A.

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