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Agra of three Icos, accompanied by 'Abdullah Khán. He wished to halt till the 15th, the anniversary of his accession. Husain Ali Khán, however, urged an advance, and on the 14th (8th Sept. 1720) the army marched to a little beyond Fathpur Sikți. After four or five days they moved on southwards. 'Abdullah Khán remained behind, and on the 19th Zi'l Ka'd (13th Sept. 1720), he started for Delhi.

Then follows in the “Siyar-ul Mutakharín" a statement, damaging to Nawab Muhammad Khán's reputation, which I quote.

« On the road to “ Delhi* Muhammad Khán, Bangash, came to visit Abdullah Khán and

expressed his desire to march and join Husain ’Ali Khán in his campaign of the Dakbin, were he not prevented by want of means. He received

fifty thousand rupees, in addition to the several lakhs of rupees which “ Husain 'Ali Khan had paid him to induce him to start. Then, with a lie " which looked like truth, he said he was going to the Emperor's camp. “He took his leave, and ’Abdullah Khán resumed his march to Delhi.”

On the 6th Zi'l Hajj, 1132 H. (30th Sept. 1720; when about thirtyfive kos beyond Fathpur Sikrí, Husain 'Ali Khán was assassinated with the Emperor's knowledge and consent. A return to Agra then commenced. As soon as he received word of his brother's death, ’Abdullah Khán raised to the throne Sultan Ibrahim, son of Raf'-ul Kadr, son of Bahadur Shah. This was on the 11th Zi'l Hajj, 1132 (5th Oct., 1720). A few days were spent in collecting such an army as could be got together in the time. On the 17th Zi'l Hajj, 1132 H. (11th Oct., 1720) ’Abdullah Khan started from Delhi.

On the 9th Muharram 1133 H. (30th Oct., 1720) Muhammad Shah's camp left Shahpur. It was here that Muhammad Khán, after a good deal of wavering and consultation with his friends, such as Shuj'at Khán Ghilzai and others, threw in his lot with the Emperor and joined him with three thousand men. I It is said that 'Abdullah Khán had written to him reminding him of the many favours he had received, and requesting aid at this crisis. If they gained the day, he would make Muhammad Khán first in the whole kingdom. But a furmán from Muhammad Shah, another from his mother, Kudsia Begam, and letters from the nobles, arrived about the same time. Self-interest and perhaps some faint respect for the reigning house, appear to have carried the day

When Kutb-ul Mulk 'Abdullah Khán reached Hasanpurß three kos from the Emperor's camp, he halted. On the 12th Muharram, 1133 H. (2nd

* S-ul-M. 433.
t S-ul-M. 437 and 438.
I S-ul-M. 439.

§ IIasanpur lies, I believe, close to the town of 01, in Parganah Farálı of the Agra District, some twenty-four miles north-west of Agra.

Nov, 1720) be placed his army in battle array The battle began early on the 4th November and lasted all that day and night. On the 5th, after 'Abdullah Khán had descended from his elephant to fight on foot, he was wounded by an arrow in the forehead. Haidar Ķuli Khán recognizing him, took him and his brother Najm-ud-din 'Ali Khán prisoners, put them on an elephant, and conveyed them to the Emperor. The drums then beat to victory. Muhammad Khan in this hotly contested battle appears to have fought in the main body. In Sahib Ráe's collection, there is a long letter from Muhammad Khán to Rájáh Jai Singh Sawáe describing the battle, but there are no personal details.

The Nawab for his services was promised six lakhs of rupees on receipt of treasure from Bengal, but the money was never paid.

If the local myth were to be believed, Muhammad Khán played a much more dramatic part than history accords him. The story goes that Muhammad Khan with his whole force moved down on 'Abdullah Khán. On the Nawab's elephant, seated behind him, were Muķím Khán and Dáúd Khán, chelas. The elephant was driven close to that of Sayyad 'Abdullahı Khán and Muhammad Khán gave him “ Salám 'alaikum.'

The Sayyad with a

Wa'alaikum" stretched out his hand from the howdah to be kissed. Muhammad Khán then threw his silken girdle round it, and dragged the Sayyad out of his howdah. From the jerk ’Abdullah Khan's turban fell off, and Muhammad Khán threw hirn down a Kashmir shawl to wind round his head. The Sayyad refused to take it and, looking towards Muhammad Khán, spat at him. Multím Khán and Dáúc Khán sprang down and seized Sayyad ’Abdullah Khán, the former taking his shield and the latter his sword. An attempt at rescue was foiled and about midday the Nawab reached camp with his prisoner ; on a demand from the Emperor the Sayyad was made over to him. The shield remained with Allahdad Khán, son of Natal Mukím Khán, up to the time of Nawab Shatkat Jang (1813-1823); and Nawab Amín-ud-daula used often to send for it, and highly extol the valour by which it had been won.

On the 16th Muharram, 1133 H. (6th Nov., 1720)* the Emperor Muhammad Shah marched for Delhi; and advancing quickly he reached it on the 19th (9th Nov., 1720) and encamped for two days near the pillar of Khwaja Nizam-ud-din. Those who had distinguished themselves were presented. On this occasion Muhammad Khan, who had been made a Commander of six thousand on Muhammad Shah's accession, was increased to the rank of Haft Hazári 7000 horse. He received a Ichilat with seven lakhs of rupees in cash, he was granted the title of Ghazanfar Jang “ The Lion of War”, and tbe parganahs of Bhojpur and Shamshábád, both

* S-ul-M, 443

in the modern district of Farrukhábád, were added to his former jágírs. He was soon after appointed Subahdár of Allabábád (between 22nd Oct., 1720 and 11th Oct., 1721).* At this time, his ’Amils or subordinate governors were for Allahábád, Bhúre Khán, chela ; for Irichh, Bhánder and Kálpí, Daler Khán, chela ; for Sipri and Jalaun, Kamál Khán ; for Bhojpur, Neknám Khán, chela ; for Shamshabad, Dáúc Khán, chela ; for Budson, Sahaswán (now both in the Budáon district) and Mihrábád (now in the Shahjahánput district), Shansher Khán, chela.

In 1135 H. (1st Oct., 1722–20th Sept. 1723) Samsám-ud-daula procured a grant of the Subah of Agra in favour of Rájáh Jai Singh Sawáe. Jai Singh soon after marched against Churaman Ját, to punish him for having sided with the late Wazír, 'Abdullah Khán. Muhkam Singh, son of Churáman, insulted I his father in open darbár, and rather than bear the disgrace the father committed suicide. Badan Singh, nephew of Churáman, sided with Rájáh Jai Singh. The fort of Thún was occupied on the 9th Safar, 1135 H. (8th Nov., 1722), and Badan Singh, who was father of Suraj Mall, then succeeded to the territory. In this campaign Muhammad Khán bore a part.

In the fifth year (Jan. 1723 to Dec. 1723), Muhammad Khan went with the army under the command of Sharf-ud-daula Irádatmand Khan and Rájáh Jai Singh, sent to chastise Ajít Singh Rathor, Rájáh of Márwár. Before the army could reach his territory, Ajit Singh was assassinated by his son Bakht Singh. Through the mediation of Nawab Muhammad Khán, Dhonkal Singh made his submission to the Emperor. ||

Muhammad Klán had barely reached Mairtha with Ablai Singh alias Dhonkal, when he was recalled to undertake the recovery of Bundelkhand from Chattarsál. Six nfonths were employed on this duty, when on receipt of intelligence that Mubariz Khán, faujdár of Burhanpur, had been killed, he was ordered to return from Bundelkhand to the Duáb, and thence to proceed by way of Akbarábád to Gwályár to meet an irruption of the Mahrattas. Báji Ráo had appeared north of the Narbada, had attacked

* The local MSS. say Agra, but I think this must be a mistake. For some disparaging remarks about Muhammad Kháu in regard to this Allahábád appointment, sco S-ul-M. 451, line 5 from cnd.

of S-ul-M. p. 456.
I S-ul-M. p. 439.

§ Tod (Madras Reprint, 1873,) Vols. I, 636 and II, 81 gives the date about 1780 S., corresponding to July, 1723.

Al Muliammad Khán is not named in the list of Musalmán leaders in Tod, II, 80, but the same authority shows that Dhonkal, or the exterminator, was a nickname of Alai Singh, son of Ajit Singh. The Trichoi-Hindi” mentions Muhammad Khán [Dowson's Elliot, VIII, 44.]

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Girdhar Bahadur, the Imperial Governor of Málwa, and for two seasons (1725—1726), had obtained plunder and contributions. * Muhammad Khán was appointed to the command of five thousand men, with two lakhs of rupees a month for their pay. He waited at Akbarábád to receive the money and was then told to go on to Gwáliár, where he entertained nearly ten thousand horsemen, and lay there idle for seven months.

On his way back from the above expedition, Muhammad Khán was asked by Khán Daurán Khán, who then held in jagir parganahs Bhongamt and Tálgrám, I to send two thousand men to aid Mahtya Sadanand in reducing to submission Jaswant Singh, zamindár of Mainpuri. The traditional story is, that the Chaubán Rájáb, Dalíp Singh, neglected to pay his respects to the Nawab, and Bhúre Khán with five hundred horse was sent to bring him. When the Rájáh came before the Nawab, he delayed in making his salám, and Bhúre Khán bent his neck down with his hand. The Rájáb freeing himself drew his sword. Then the Nawab sent an arrow at him and hit him in the head so that he died on the spot. His son, Jaswant Singh, was appointed his successor and the Nawab resumed his road to Farrukhábád. 8


Bundelkhand Affairs. We have already seen,|| that the jágírs given to Muhammad Khán in the reign of Farrukhsiyar and the early part of that of Muhammad Shah, lay mostly in Bundelkhand. Farrukhsiyar (1713-1719) granted him the parganahs of Sehand and Maudah** in jágír: to the charge of these Daler Kbán, chela was appointed. In the first year of Muhammad Shah's reign (Feb. 1719-Feb. 1720) a tanlchwah was granted on Kálpi,tt Irichh, It and other places in Bundelkhand.

In the same year, 1719—1720, it was reported that the Bundelas had plundered Kalpi, had killed Pi *Ali Khán, Muhammad Khán’s ’Amil, and his son. They seized the women and children of the respectable Muhammadans, and knocked down their houses, mosques and tombs. Nawáb Burhán-ul Mulk then asked that the Mughuls might be sent against the

* Grant Duff, 218, Bombay reprint, 1873.
* In the Mainpuri District.
I In the Farrukhábád District.

Ś Gaz. IV. 550, 552. Jaswant Singh's accession took placo in 1783 S. = 1720 A. D.

Il P. 274.
1 Twelve miles south of Banda.
** In the Hamirpur District.
** On tho Jamna, in thc Jalaun District.
if In thi Jhansi District.

invaders, but the Emperor confided their chastisement to Muhammad Khán. Daler Khán, chela, was ordered off with a proper force, and marching rapidly he ejected the Thánas of the enemy from the parganahs of Kálpi and Jalálpur.* The inhabitants then began to return to the plundered towns.

At this period Nawab Amín-ud-din ’Itimád-ud-daula passed away.† Some of his enemies considered that Muhammad Khán had been favoured by the late Wazír, and they caused letters to be written to the Rájáhs of Chanderi and Orchha and to other zamindárs, instigating them to resistance. The Hindus assembled to the number of thirty thousand horse, besides countless infantry.

ķáim Khán, the Nawab's son, then faujdár of Sarkár Ghorá, had meanwhile been besieging for a year the town of Tarahwán, I the residence of Pahár Singh. This place had four forts, very strong, surrounded with jungle, steep ravines, and difficult passages through the hills. Káim Khán had with him ten thousand horse, and by the greatest exertions he succeeded in capturing the fortress. He then made ready to march to the aid of Daler Khán.

Muhammad Khán now represented to the Emperor, that if the punishment of the rebels were not heartily desired, the army had better be recalled. The Emperor encouraged Muhammad Khán to persevere. But he, discouraged by the number of letters sent by his enemies to the Hindu Rajahs, wrote repeatedly to Daler Khán enjoining him to restore the forts and villages of the enemy. Times had changed and the campaignmust be relinquished. Despite these orders, Daler Khán, in the pride of his courage and resolution, thought not of the superiority of the enemy and refused to withdraw from offensive operations.

On the 29th Rajab of the 3rd year of the reign (1133 H., 13th May, 1721) Chattarsál advanced with nearly thirty thousand horse and a numerous artillery. Daler Khán with the force he had, some four thousand horse and foot, prepared for the attack. He rode at the enemy at the head of five hundred men, and threw them into confusion. By the fickleness of fortune he now received, besides sword and spear wounds, two bullet shots, one in the forehead and one in the breast. He expired on the spot, and his five hundred companions, after prodigies of valour, were all slain. When the emperor, Mubammad Shah, heard of Daler Khán's death, he made a present to Muhammad Khán, by way of consolation, of a jewelled aigrette and a khilat.

* In tho Hamirpur District.
* He died in Rabi 1133 H. (January 1721).

In the Banda District, 42 miles cast of Bánda. Gaz. N. W. P. I, 593.

§ The “Siyar-ul-Mutakhárin,' p. 452, says Daler Khan had 1000 men with him, of whom 700 or 800 were killed.

ll S-ul-M. p. 452. .

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