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Agra of three kos, accompanied by 'Abdullah Khán. He wished to halt till the 15th, the anniversary of his accession. Husain Ali Khán, however, urged an advance, and on the 14th (8th Sept. 1720) the army marched to a little beyond Fathpur Sikri. After four or five days they moved on southwards. 'Abdullah Khán remained behind, and on the 19th Zi'l Ka'd (13th Sept. 1720), he started for Delhi.

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Then follows in the "Siyar-ul Mutákharín" a statement, damaging to Nawab Muhammad Khán's reputation, which I quote. "On the road to “ Delhi* Muhammad Khán, Bangash, came to visit ’Abdullah Khán and expressed his desire to march and join Husain 'Ali Khán in his campaign "of the Dakhin, were he not prevented by want of means. He received fifty thousand rupees, in addition to the several lakhs of rupees which "Husain 'Ali Khán had paid him to induce him to start. Then, with a lie "which looked like truth, he said he was going to the Emperor's camp. "He took his leave, and 'Abdullah Khán resumed his march to Delhi."

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On the 6th Zi'l Hajj, 1132 H. (30th Sept. 1720, when about thirtyfive kos beyond Fathpur Sikrí, Husain 'Ali Khán was assassinated with the Emperor's knowledge and consent. A return to Agra then commenced. As soon as he received word of his brother's death, 'Abdullah Khán raised to the throne Sulțán Ibráhim, son of Raf'-ul Kadr, son of Bahádur Sháh.† This was on the 11th Zi'l Hajj, 1132 (5th Oct., 1720). A few days were spent in collecting such an army as could be got together in the time. On the 17th Zi'l Hajj, 1132 H. (11th Oct., 1720) 'Abdullah Khán started from Delhi.

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On the 9th Muharram 1133 H. (30th Oct., 1720) Muhammad Sháh's camp left Shahpur. It was here that Muhammad Khán, after a good deal of wavering and consultation with his friends, such as Shuj'at Khán Ghilzai and others, threw in his lot with the Emperor and joined him with three thousand men. It is said that 'Abdullah Khán had written to hìm reminding him of the many favours he had received, and requesting aid at this crisis. If they gained the day, he would make Muhammad Khán first in the whole kingdom. But a furmún from Muhammad Sháh, another from his mother, Ķudsia Begam, and letters from the nobles, arrived about the same time. Self-interest and perhaps some faint respect for the reigning house, appear to have carried the day.

When Kutb-ul Mulk 'Abdullah Khán reached Hasanpur§ three kos from the Emperor's camp, he halted. On the 12th Muharram, 1133 H. (2nd

*S-ul-M. 433.

+ S-ul-M. 437 and 438.

S-ul-M. 439.

§ IIasanpur lics, I believe, close to the town of Ol, in Parganah Faráh of the Agra District, some twenty-four miles north-west of Agra.

Nov, 1720) he placed his army in battle array. The battle began early on the 4th November and lasted all that day and night. On the 5th, after 'Abdullah Khán had descended from his elephant to fight on foot, he was wounded by an arrow in the forehead. Haidar Kuli Khán recognizing him, took him and his brother Najm-ud-din 'Ali Khán prisoners, put them on an elephant, and conveyed them to the Emperor. The drums then beat to victory. Muhammad Khán in this hotly contested battle appears to have fought in the main body. In Sáhib Ráe's collection, there is a long letter from Muhammad Khán to Rájáh Jai Singh Sawáe describing the battle, but there are no personal details. The Nawáb for his services was promised six lakhs of rupees on receipt of treasure from Bengal, but the money was never paid.

If the local myth were to be believed, Muhammad Khán played a much more dramatic part than history accords him. The story goes that Muhammad Khán with his whole force moved down on ’Abdullah Khán. On the Nawab's elephant, seated behind him, were Muķím Khán and Dáúd Khán, chelas. The elephant was driven close to that of Sayyad 'Abdullah Khán and Muhammad Khán gave him "Salám 'alaikum." The Sayyad with a "Wa'alaikum" stretched out his hand from the howdah to be kissed. Muhammad Khán then threw his silken girdle round it, and dragged the Sayyad out of his howdah. From the jerk 'Abdullah Khán's turban fell off, and Muhammad Khán threw him down a Kashmir shawl to wind round his head. The Sayyad refused to take it and, looking towards Muhammad Khán, spat at him. Mukím Khán and Dáud Khán sprang down and seized Sayyad 'Abdullah Khán, the former taking his shield and the latter his sword. An attempt at rescue was foiled and about midday the Nawab reached camp with his prisoner; on a demand from the Emperor the Sayyad was made over to him. The shield remained with Allahdád Khán, son of Nawáb Mukím Khán, up to the time of Nawáb Shaukat Jang (1813-1823); and Nawáb Amín-ud-daula used often to send for it, and highly extol the valour by which it had been won.

On the 16th Muharram, 1133 H. (6th Nov., 1720)* the Emperor Muhammad Sháh marched for Delhi; and advancing quickly he reached it on the 19th (9th Nov., 1720) and encamped for two days near the pillar of Khwaja Nizám-ud-din. Those who had distinguished themselves were presented. On this occasion Muhammad Khán, who had been made a Commander of six thousand on Muhammad Shah's accession, was increased to the rank of Haft Hazári 7000 horse. He received a khilat with seven lakhs of rupees in cash, he was granted the title of Ghazanfar Jang "The Lion of War", and the parganahs of Bhojpur and Shamshábád, both

* S-ul-M, 443

in the modern district of Farrukhábád, were added to his former jágírs. He was soon after appointed Subahdár of Allahábád (between 22nd Oct., 1720 and 11th Oct., 1721).* At this time, his 'Amils or subordinate governors were for Allahábád, Bhúre Khán, chela; for Irichh, Bhánder and Kálpí, Daler Khán, chela; for Sípri and Jalaun, Kamál Khán; for Bhojpur, Neknám Khán, chela; for Shamshábád, Dáúd Khán, chela; for Budáon, Sahaswán (now both in the Budáon district) and Mihrábád (now in the Shahjahanpur district), Shamsher Khán, chela.

In 1135 H. (1st Oct., 1722-20th Sept. 1723) Samsám-ud-daula procured a grant of the Subah of Agra in favour of Rájáh Jai Singh Sawáe.† Jai Singh soon after marched against Churáman Ját, to punish him for having sided with the late Wazír, 'Abdullah Khán. Muhkam Singh, son of Churáman, insulted his father in open darbár, and rather than bear the disgrace the father committed suicide. Badan Singh, nephew of Churáman, sided with Rájáh Jai Singh. The fort of Thún was occupied on the 9th Safar, 1135 H. (8th Nov., 1722), and Badan Singh, who was father of Suraj Mall, then succeeded to the territory. In this campaign Muhammad Khán bore a part.


In the fifth year (Jan. 1723 to Dec. 1723), Muhammad Khán went with army under the command of Sharf-ud-daula Irádatmand Khán and Rájáh Jai Singh, sent to chastise Ajit Singh Rathor, Rájáh of Márwár. Before the army could reach his territory, Ajít Singh was assassinated by his son Bakht Singh.§ Through the mediation of Nawab Muhammad Khán, Dhonkal Singh made his submission to the Emperor.||

Muhammad Khán had barely reached Mairtha with Abhai Singh alias Dhonkal, when he was recalled to undertake the recovery of Bundelkhand from Chattarsál. Six n'onths were employed on this duty, when on receipt of intelligence that Mubáriz Khán, faujdár of Burhanpur, had been killed, he was ordered to return from Bundelkhand to the Duáb, and thence to proceed by way of Akbarábád to Gwályár to meet an irruption of the Mahrattas. Báji Ráo had appeared north of the Narbada, had attacked

*The local MSS. say Agra, but I think this must be a mistake. For some disparaging remarks about Muhammad Khán in regard to this Allahábád appointment, sce S-ul-M. 451, line 5 from end.

f S-ul-M. p. 456.

S-ul-M. p. 439.

§ Tod (Madras Reprint, 1873,) Vols. I, 636 and II, 81 gives the date about 1780 S., corresponding to July, 1723.

Muhammad Khán is not named in the list of Musalmán leaders in Tod, II, 80, but the same authority shows that Dhonkal, or the exterminator, was a nickname of Abhai Singh, son of Ajít Singh. The "Tarikh-i-Hindi" mentions Muhammad Khán [Dowson's Elliot, VIII, 44.]

Girdhar Bahádur, the Imperial Governor of Málwa, and for two seasons (1725—1726), had obtained plunder and contributions. * Muhammad Khán was appointed to the command of five thousand men, with two lakhs of rupees a month for their pay. He waited at Akbarábád to receive the money and was then told to go on to Gwáliár, where he entertained nearly ten thousand horsemen, and lay there idle for seven months.

On his way back from the above expedition, Muhammad Khán was asked by Khán Daurán Khán, who then held in jágir parganahs Bhongám† and Tálgrám,‡ to send two thousand men to aid Mahtya Sadanand in reducing to submission Jaswant Singh, zamindár of Mainpuri. The traditional story is, that the Chauhán Rájáh, Dalíp Singh, neglected to pay his respects to the Nawáb, and Bhúre Khán with five hundred horse was sent to bring him. When the Rájáh came before the Nawáb, he delayed in making his salám, and Bhúre Khán bent his neck down with his hand. The Rájáh freeing himself drew his sword. Then the Nawab sent an arrow at him and hit him in the head so that he died on the spot. His son, Jaswant Singh, was appointed his successor and the Nawáb resumed his road to Farrukhábád.§

Bundelkhand Affairs.

We have already seen,|| that the jágírs given to Muhammad Khán in the reign of Farrukhsiyar and the early part of that of Muhammad Shah, lay mostly in Bundelkhand, Farrukhsiyar (1713-1719) granted him the parganahs of Sehand¶ and Maudah** in jágír: to the charge of these Daler Khán, chela was appointed. In the first year of Muhammad Shah's reign (Feb. 1719-Feb. 1720) a tankhwah was granted on Kálpi,†† Irichh,‡‡ and other places in Bundelkhand.

In the same year, 1719—1720, it was reported that the Bundelas had plundered Kálpi, had killed Pír 'Ali Khán, Muhammad Khán's 'Amil, and his son. They seized the women and children of the respectable Muhammadans, and knocked down their houses, mosques and tombs. Nawáb Burhán-ul Mulk then asked that the Mughuls might be sent against the

* Grant Duff, 218, Bombay reprint, 1873.

In the Mainpuri District.

In the Farrukhábád District.

§ Gaz. IV. 550, 552. Jaswant Singh's accession took place in 1783 S. 1726 A. D.

|| P. 274.

¶ Twelve miles south of Bánda.

** In the Hamirpur District.

On the Jamna, in the Jalaun District.

‡‡ In the Jhansi District.

invaders, but the Emperor confided their chastisement to Muhammad Khán. Daler Khán, chela, was ordered off with a proper force, and marching rapidly he ejected the Thanas of the enemy from the parganahs of Kálpi and Jalálpur. The inhabitants then began to return to the plundered towns.

At this period Nawáb Amín-ud-din 'Itimad-ud-daula passed away.† Some of his enemies considered that Muhammad Khán had been favoured by the late Wazír, and they caused letters to be written to the Rájáhs of Chanderi and Orchha and to other zamindárs, instigating them to resistance. The Hindus assembled to the number of thirty thousand horse, besides countless infantry.

Káim Khán, the Nawáb's son, then faujdár of Sarkár Ghorá, had meanwhile been besieging for a year the town of Tarahwán,‡ the residence of Pahár Singh. This place had four forts, very strong, surrounded with jungle, steep ravines, and difficult passages through the hills. Káim Khán had with him ten thousand horse, and by the greatest exertions he succeeded in capturing the fortress. He then made ready to march to the aid of Daler Khán

Muhammad Khán now represented to the Emperor, that if the punishment of the rebels were not heartily desired, the army had better be recalled. The Emperor encouraged Muhammad Khán to persevere. But he, discouraged by the number of letters sent by his enemies to the Hindu Rájahs, wrote repeatedly to Daler Khán enjoining him to restore the forts and villages of the enemy. Times had changed and the campaign must be relinquished. Despite these orders, Daler Khán, in the pride of his courage and resolution, thought not of the superiority of the enemy and refused to withdraw from offensive operations.

On the 29th Rajab of the 3rd year of the reign (1133 H., 13th May, 1721) Chattarsál advanced with nearly thirty thousand horse and a numerous artillery. Daler Khán with the force he had, some four thousand horse and foot, prepared for the attack. He rode at the enemy at the head of five hundred men, and threw them into confusion. By the fickleness of fortune he now received, besides sword and spear wounds, two bullet shots, one in the forehead and one in the breast. He expired on the spot, and his five hundred companions, after prodigies of valour, were all slain.§ When the emperor, Muhammad Sháh, heard of Daler Khán's death, he made a present to Muhammad Khán, by way of consolation, of a jewelled aigrette and a khilat.||

*In the Hamirpur District.

He died in Rabi 1133 H. (January 1721).

In the Bánda District, 42 miles cast of Bánda. Gaz. N. W. P. I, 593.

§ The "Siyar-ul-Mutakhárin," p. 452, says Daler Khán had 1000 men with him,

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