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Daler Khán, chela, was by birth a Bundela Thákur.* He is famed for his bravery, but he seems to have been very lavish and extravagant in his management. He spent one year's income in equipping a body of seventeen hundred horse, magnificently clad and armed. When the Nawab sent urgent orders for remittance of revenue, Daler Khán marched with his regiment and halted where is now the Páen Bágh below the fort. Attending darbar, he made each of his men present a gold coin as Daler Khán then took up the Nawáb's shoes and stood behind his seat, saying, "I am only fit to carry your shoes, you may give the Súbah to whom you like, one who will bring you heaps of money; these seventeen hun"dred men are all the revenue you will get from me." This made the Nawab smile, he embraced Daler Khán and sent him back to his district.

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Daler Khán took part in nearly all the campaigns in which Muhammad Khán was engaged. The Patháns and the Bundelas on account of his bravery, styled him "Súrmán" (brave, bold), the mark of which is that a man's arms are so long that his hands touch his knees when standing upright. Daler Khán had this peculiarity.

The traditionary account of his death is as follows: One day Daler Khán had gone out to shoot followed by only three hundred horse, the rest being left in camp. A scout brought word to Rájah Chattarsál, who came out with a large force. Both sides began to fire. Nawáb Daler Khán's companions advised a retreat. He refused, with the remark, "One must die sooner or later." Then reciting the final prayer (Fátiha) and taking up his horse's rein to urge him on, he rode straight into the Rájah's army and, cutting his way through, came clear out on the other side. Numbers of the Bundelas were killed. He then made for the Rajah's howdah, and at this moment he received a ball in his chest, so that he fell dead. All the three hundred horsemen shared his fate. When his troops heard of his death they came out to attack Chattarsál, who then retreated. Daler Khán was buried in the village of Maudah,† and all the people of Bundelkhand mourned his loss. On every Thursday sweetmeats are offered at his tomb. Every son of a Bundela, on reaching the age of twelve years, is taken by his father and mother to Maudah, where they place his sword and shield on Daler Khán's tomb. They make an offering, and the boy then girds on the sword and takes up the shield, while the parents pray that he may be brave as Daler Khán. Kettle-drums are regularly beaten at the tomb.†

* The motto on his seal was "Az lutf i Muhammad Daler ámadam." Hisám-ud-dín says he was uncle to the Ráná of Gohad living in 1753. If this be true, Daler Khán was a Ját, but the accepted story is that in the text.

† Gaz. I, 27. In the Hamirpur District, 20 miles from Hamirpur. The tomb is one mile outside the town (Gaz. I, 545) on the Hamirpur road. The date there given, 1730, seems to be a mistake.

‡ Note C. on Bundelkhand traditions of Daler (or Dalel) Khán.

About the time of Daler Khán's death, that is in 1133 H. (Oct. 1720— Oct. 1721), Muhammad Khán was appointed governor of Allahábád. The authors of the "Lauh" say the Sanad for Allahábád used to be with Amínud-daula, grandson of Muhammad Khán, and náib from 1786 to 1803, and that Islám Khán Bakhshi had a copy. I know not what has become of these now. The revenue is said to have been eighty-two lakhs of rupees. In the latter part of 1723, when Muhammad Khán reached Mairtha* on his way to Court with Abhai Singh, son of Ajít Singh of Márwár,† a farman and an order sealed by the Amír-ul-Umrá (Khán Dauán Khán) were received. These stated that Chattarsál had occupied a large portion of imperial territory, that Burhán-ul-Mulk had been sent in haste against him, and that Muhammad Khán should also hurry to the spot.

In obedience to this order, Muhammad Khán proceeded in the 7th year (Dec. 1724-Dec. 1725), to the Subah of Allahábád, which had been already granted to him with all its sarkárs. For years, owing to the resistance of the zamindars, his deputies had been unable to regain effective possession in Bundelkhand. After a two months' stay in Allahábád, an army of fifteen thousand horsemen was collected. With these he proceeded to the banks of the Jamna at Bhognipur. Burhán-ul Mulk had already returned, and

had gone back to his Súbah of Audh.

Repeated orders came to make an advance, and several leaders were accordingly sent across the Jamna. Muhammad Khán then crossed the river himself. In the course of six months' fighting, he penetrated as far as parganah Sahenḍah, south of Bândâ. Farmáns and orders from Khán Daurán Khán were now received through Ayá Mall, stating that as Mubáriz Khán had been killed, the campaign against the Hindus had been postponed.§ Although the enemy had nearly succumbed, the Nawab was reluctantly compelled to forego his advantage. The enemy swore by most. solemn oaths not to re-enter Muhammad Khán's jágírs, and they retreated three marches from the Muhammadan army. After placing his Thúnas in the country, Muhammad Khán came away. He then, as already related, was sent on duty to Gwáliyár to repel an expected attack from the Mahrattas. Taking advantage of his absence, the Bundelas, in the most faithless manner, broke their oath and set aside their treaty, and prevented the collection of any revenue.

At this period, Harde Narayan and the other sons of Chattarsál had overrun the whole of Baghelkhand to the frontiers of Subah 'Azímábád,

*About forty miles wost of Ajmir, in Jodhpúr territory.

† See back, page 283.

In the Cawnpur district, on the road to Kálpi, about six miles from the Jamna. § Mubáriz Khán, governor of Haidarábád, was killed in battle with Asaf Jáh in October 1724. Elph. 615.

and approaching Allahábád had raised disturbances in that quarter. In the 9th year (1139–1140 H.) Muhammad Khán received a farmán directing him to proceed to his Súbah to restore order, Bundelkhand being a subordinate division of the Allahábád province. An allowance of two lakhs of rupees a month was made, afterwards commuted to a grant of the Chakla of Korá.

As soon as he reached Allahábád, Muhammad Khán began to raise an army. Seventeen rupees was the pay of a trooper and twenty rupees that of a Jamádar. On the 12th Jamáda II, 1139 H. (24th January 1727,) Akbar Khán, the Nawáb's third son, was appointed to lead the van and crossed the Jamna. Muhammad Khán's advance-tents were sent across the river, and he soon followed with fifteen to sixteen thousand horse and the same number of infantry.*

At this time the Bundelas, with a force estimated at 20,000 horse and more than 100,000 foot, held the whole of Baghelkhand up to Patna, the country of Sankrát, and Mándo (or Mádhon)† as far as Haldi: the only place left was the fort of Bewand, [Bond, Pewand ?] which Hardi Sáh and Jagat Ráe had invested with a force of 30,000 horse and 50,000 foot. To meet this powerful confederacy, Muhammad Khán urged the Wazír to aid him with contingents from Udait Singh, Rájah of Orchha, Ráo Rámchand of Datiya, Pirthi, zamindar of Sahendah, Durjan Singh, zamindar of Chanderi, Rajah Jai Singh of Maudah, Khánḍe Rám Narwari and Rajah Gopál Singh Bhadaurya. He also wished for the aid of certain faujdárs, Sayyad Najm-ud-din ’Ali Khán, Sábit Khán, Ján Nisár Khán, Buzurg ’Ali Khán, and the Naib Faujdár of Jaunpur. None of these men, except Jai Singh of Maudah, appear to have obeyed the orders issued to them from Delhi.

The first operations were directed to clearing the eastern part of Bundelkhand. The forts of Lúk§, Chaukhandi,|| Garh-Kakareli¶ and Mau** in the Sankrát-Barsinghpurt+ country were reduced. They also obtainedRamnagar‡‡ the forts of Katauli,§§ Sahrah, and Kalyanpur,|||| with a

* The crossing took place, I am inclined to think, at Allahábád, or perhaps, at the Mau ferry, some 35 miles above that place.

† Query, 22 miles west of Ríwah.

Query, 10 miles north-east of Ríwah.

§ In Riwah, east of the Tons. Long. 81.29, Lat. 24·55.

|| Long. 81.29 Lat. 25.1. About 10 m. S. of Bargarh Railway Station, in the Riwah state.

¶ Long. 81.17 Lat 24.26, west of the Tons, in the Pannah state.

** Long. 81°9 Lat 25°21 about seven miles S. of the Dabhaurah Railway Station.

†† Long. 81°1 Lat 24°48 about 7 m. east of the Jabalpur Railway.

There is one Ramnagar about 2 m. west of Kalinjar.

§§ Long. 81°15 Lat 24°59′,

Long. 81°7′ Lat. 25°.

hundred kos of the country belonging to Mándho* and Bándah. For a time the enemy hung about the hills near Tarahwán, after which they entered the fort, Chattarsál himself taking refuge in flight. Leaving Káim Khán to invest Tarahwán, Muhammad Khán himself went to within four kos of Sahenḍah, but the enemy again gave way and fled. The parganahs of Bhind,† Maudah, ‡ Pailáni,§ Agwási|| and Simauni,¶ with the ferries, had now been cleared. The campaign up to the first capture of Tarahwán seems to have occupied ten months or a year.

Káim Khán, the Nawáb's eldest son, and another brother, Hádi Dád Khán, were left behind with 12,000 horse and 12,000 foot to besiege Tarahwán. Babu Chattar Singh, son of Rájah Jai Singh of Maudah, was also put under his orders, together with Khán Jahán, Halim Khán, Muhammad Zu’lfikár, Ráe Har Parshád, and two zamindars, Sadú and Har Bans. Sangrám Singh, brother of Anandi Das, had also promised to join with some men he had collected. Káim Khán's instructions were to take the place as quickly as possible, and then rejoin his father with the captured cannon, lead,` and powder of Tarahwán, Kalyanpur and Kakrauri. The zamindars were to be conciliated, Tarahwán bringing in fourteen lakhs of rupees.

The fort of Tarahwán, the head-quarters of Pahár Singh, had three mud forts with four masonry citadels, surrounded by an extensive jungle. For many years no Muhammadan governor had attacked it, and for some months it resisted all efforts to reduce it. The garrison was commanded by Sabhá Singh, son of Harde Narayan and grandson of Chattarsál, aided by Har Bans, zamindar of Bargarh** with a number of Mahrattas, " Barki,” (?) and others. On the 9th Jamadi I, 1140 (12th Dec., 1727), after severe fighting, Káim Khán succeeded in entering the outer fort, having beaten in the gates by driving his elephant against them. The Hindus, after a short struggle, were expelled from the second fortress and compelled to take refuge in the third fort. About two thousand of the besieged lost their lives. From the walls of the fourth fort, the defenders threw down burning substances, and the contest was prolonged for some fifteen hours: at three hours before sunrise the survivors sallied forth intending to escape, when three hundred of them were killed, and as many more were drowned in the

* Mádhogarh, Long. 80°58′ Lat. 24°34′.

+ Mataundh, to the south-west of Banda, is suggested by Mr. Cadell.
In the East of the Hamirpur district.

§ In the Banda district, the next parganah to Maudah on the east.

|| Augási, in the Banda district, the parganah next to Pailáni on the cast. Mr. Cadell tells me that the name is spelt Agwási on a slab in the mosque at Augási built by Shah Kuli on the site of the Hindu fort.

¶ About 10 miles south-west of Augási.

**Bargarh, a station on the E. I. Railway (?)

river. The fort was then completely occupied. The siege had occupied five or six months. After this victory Káim Khán marched against the fort of Kalyan Singh, eight kos from Tarahwán,* and against Muhkamgarh in the same neighbourhood.†

While Káim Khán was occupied with Tarahwán and the country to the east, Muhammad Khán advanced from Sihondah. Skirmishing went on continuously for one month and twenty-one days. The enemy had strengthened their position by throwing up strong entrenchments, overlooking the bed of the torrent, in addition to the village fort. Tradition hands down Ichauli as the site of the great battle which now took place. This might refer to the Ichauli on the Syáni river, eleven miles west of Bánda, although this village does not seem far enough to the south and west to fit in with the rest of the details; nor is there in the district anything known of a fight there against the Muhammadans. In the Hadíkat-ulAkalim the name is spelt Ajúni or Ajúli, and it is said to be in parganah Mahoba. The date of the battle was the 2nd Shuwwál, 1139, (12th May, 1727).

At about two hours after sunrise, the first entrenchment, defended by Harde Narayan and Hindu Singh Chandela with twenty thousand horse and forty thousand foot, was carried by the Muhammadans, who had advanced slowly and in good order. Here Bhúre Khán, Dilâwar Khán, Imám Khán, Ghulám Muhammad Khán, ’Abd-ur-rasúl Khán, and Muhammad Zamán Khán, chiefs and leaders, lost their lives, while Akbar Khán, the Nawáb's son, received a graze from a spent ball, and Sayyad Ja’far Husain Khán, Allahyár Khán and Mangal Khán were wounded. The Bundelas now retreated to a second fort occupied by Jagat Ráe, another son of the Rájah, with fifteen thousand horse. Fighting was resumed, and here Ahmad Khán, Irádat Khán, Sirdár Khán and Husain Khán were slain, and Rahmat Khán with other horsemen was severely wounded. At length Harde Narayan, Jagat Narayan and Mohan Singh, sons of Chattarsál,‡ and Hindu Singh Chandela fled to a third fort, near a village on a winding torrent surrounded by inaccessible ravines. Here were Chattarsál's own head quarters and a force of ten thousand horse and twenty thousand foot.

Muhammad Khán pursued his enemy and renewed the engagement. After several hours, the Bundelas continued their flight to a river with a

* Kalyanpur Khás is about 17 miles south-east of Tarahwán.

† There is a Mokengarh in the Indian Atlas, 5 miles south of Tarahwán on the Pysunni-nadi.

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This name is spelt Sattarsál throughout Sáhib Ráe's MS., but I have adhered to the more usual form. The author of the Hadíkat-ul-Akálím tells us both forms were used.

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