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ud-daula. A lakh of rupees was also promised to Kokah Jiú* in order to obtain a quick settlement of the claims for jágirs. The money to be advanced from the Treasury was at first fixed at sixty, and then fifty lakhs. Gradually the grant was reduced to a most insignificant amount, although Rájah Jai Singh Siwáe had received thirty-two lakhs for a two months' campaign.

When Muhammad Khán left Delhi, it was agreed by Amír-ul Umrá Khán Daurán Khán and Roshan-ud-daula that, on his arrival at Mathura or Akbarábád, the grants for his friends' jágirs and a sanad for the faujdári of Gwáliár should be delivered to him. He had reached Gwáliár, however, without these grants having been received, and Mangal Khán was still delayed at Court by the non-fulfilment of these promises. Mangal Khán's jágir of parganahs Mauránwah,† Sarsendi,‡ and Rahli,§ and the assignment on Ním Khár,|| had long been in the occupation of Burhán-ul Mulk. A settlement of this claim was urged, in order that the jágirdár might provide his equipment.

The other jágirs asked for were as follows: ten lakhs of dám for Mangal Khán from Hisár his native country; thirty lakhs of dám for 'Abd-un Nabi Khán from parganah Aunth** which was held by his father entirely in jágir; ten lakhs of dám for Shekh Beche on parganahs Shergaṛh†† and Thána,‡‡ the jágirs of his family; five lakhs of dám for Sayyad Sharif 'Alí Khán on Kanauj§§ his native country; fifteen lakhs of dám for Sayyad Ja'far Husain Khán on Sháhpúr ;|||| ten lakhs of dám for Kále Khán and Shujat Khán from Budáon; five lakhs of đảm for Diláwar 'Ali Khán Aurangábádi on Karnál,*** the parganah having been held by his ancestors in jágir; five lakhs of dám for Mustafa Khán from Musṭafábád+++; five lakhs of dám from Jhúsi‡‡‡ and five lakhs from Cháil§§§ * A favourite mistress of Muhammad Shah's, who was intrusted with his private signet. Seir Mutaqharin I, 264.


† Unao district, about 30 miles S. of Lakhnau.

In the Lakhnau district, written generally Sasendi-it lies 16 miles S. of Lakh

§ I fancy this is in the Faizábád district-see Elliot's Supp. Glossary, p. 337. In the Sitápur district, 18 miles S. W. of Sitápur.

West of Delhi.

** I have not traced this parganah.

++ This might be the Shergarh in the Mathura district.

Possibly this is the Thána Farída in the Aligarh district.

§§ In the present district of Farrukhábád.

In the Cawnpur district.

99 In Rohilkhand.

*** North of Delhi and west of the Jamna.

+++ In the Mainpuri district.

In the Allahábád district.

§§§ In the Allahábád district.

for Sadákat Khán ; and five lakhs of dám for Haidar ’Ali Khán from parganah Akrábád.* The Nawáb's agent was instructed not to take siáhas (collection accounts) for these allowances unless they were without the condition "páe-buki."

On the 5th Jamadi I. of the 13th year (1143 H. 5th November, 1730), Muhammad Khán writes from Agra that, of the sixty cannon ordered to be delivered from the fort, the commander (kila'dúr) had made over no more than twenty-nine. Although there were two thousand cannon in store, they offered guns, broken and useless, carrying only a shot of two or three pyce (falús) weight and without pallah. The Nawáb says he might as well take jazáil (swivel-guns) at once. Such as they were, they had neither carriages nor bullocks, and Muhammad Khán was fain to take them as they were. His agent was told to get an order at once from the Mír Atash to deliver guns carrying shot of from one seer to three seers weight. With whatever artillery could be procured he intended to start.

As the large cannon given by the Emperor and brought from Delhi was defective at the breach, and the other formerly with Nijábat 'Ali Khán had been sent back to Court, a request was made for a large cannon carrying a ball of fourteen to fifteen seers, with two others somewhat smaller. These could be delivered from the forts of Akbarábád or Gwáliár, where there were large guns in store.

At Akbarábád some three to four hundred troopers presented themselves daily to have their horses branded. Ou entertainment half a month's pay and a little more for necessaries was advanced to each man. A force of 8,200 horse and 2,500 foot was collected. It was made up as follows : There were 500 horse and 1000 foot under Mukím Khán, 400 horse and 700 foot under Dáud Khán, 600 horse and 600 foot under Sa’ádat Kháng and 200 foot under Bakhtáwar Khán ; Allahyár Khán and others, Dilázáks of Dholpúr Bári, had brought more than 2000 horse. under Sháistah Khán, Misri Khán, Khudádád Khán, others, seven leaders from Firúzábád and Shikohábád. Ghairat Kbán and others came with about 200 horse: and the same number was sent by Ráe Har Parshád, 'Amil of Rájah Jai Singh Sawáe, under their Chaube leaders from Mathura. Besides the above there were some 2000 horse in small parties from Mau, Shahjahanpur, Sháhábád and Katahr generally. All these were in addition to the men brought from Shahjahánábád. Nawáb Roshan-ud-daula had also promised to aid with a corps of 500 horse and 1000 foot of Rúmis, Arabs, and Habshis in his pay.


There were 500 horse Muhammad Khán and Fath Khán Yusufzai,

*Umr Khán,† Daler Khán, and Yát Muhammad Khán, son of Dost

* In the Aligarh district.

+ Faujdar of Mándú near the Narbada.

Apparently of Korwác near Sironj. Dowson's Elliot, VIII, 58.


Muhammad Khán,* and the other chief soldiers of Ujain, Narwar and Sironj, reported that they had ready more than twenty thousand men. They were ordered to join with them at Narwart and Kálábágh.‡ If they had been sent for to Gwáliár, two months advances would have been asked for, and the whole of the grant from the Imperial Treasury exhausted before leaving Gwáliár. Muhammad Khán endeavoured to make the money last as far as Ujain, that is for the succeeding two months.

At length on the 6th Jamadi I. 1143 H (6th November, 1730), the army was set in motion, and leaving Akbarábád it encamped at Jájau on the Bán or Utangan river, nineteen miles south of that city. The next morning, the 7th (7th Nov. 1730), a march was made and the army stopped at a short distance from Dholpúr. Mukím Khán, Dáud Khán and Sa’dat Khán with the artillery crossed at once. On the 8th, the crossing of the Chambal had not been effected by the rest of the army, the river not being then fordable, while the boats were few and small. On the 9th, Muhammad Khán crossed and the camp followed. Thence with one night between they reached Gwáliár.

From Gwáliár Muhammad Khán reiterated his request for the faujdári of that place. Without such a hold over them no hearty aid could be hoped for from the Rájahs and others ordered to serve under him. It was promised to him before he left Delhi, but having got rid of him from Court, the ministers paid no heed to his remonstrances. Chattar Singh of Shiupuris and Kaláras || learning that the sanad for Gwáliár had not arrived, collected men and began fighting Khánde Rám whom he had ejected from the fort of Bajaur.T The mercenaries had thus found service near their homes and went to join the combatants. If once these Rájahs and the mercenaries knew that Muhammad Khán had been made faujdár of Gwáliár, they would no longer seek service except under the government of their country

Rájah Udait Singh of Orchha, his son Kunwar Bahádur, Ráo Rám Chand of Datiya, Chattar Singh of Shiupúri and Kaláras, the Bhadauriya Rájah, Rájah Durjan Sál of Chanderi and others had been directed from Delhi to place themselves under Muhammad Khán's orders. Sayyad Nijábat

* The founder of Bhopál. Dowson's Elliot, VIII, 57, 59.

+ About 44 miles south of Gwáliár.

About 102 miles S. of Gwáliár, 4 miles N. of Saráe Nau, and 16 miles N. of


§ I take this to be the Sipri of the maps, 67 miles S. of Gwáliár, but there is a Shiupúri 97 miles S. W. of that place.

About 74 miles S. of Gwáliár.

¶ Or perhaps the Pichor in Lat. 250 57'; Long. 78° 27' in Gwaliár territory, some 25 miles S. E. of Gwáliár on the left bank of the Sind river.

'Ali Khán, faujdár of Irichh,* was also told off; and on the part of Máhárájah Abhai Singh of Márwár, Jai Singh and Mán Singh Ráthor of Ratlám, about fifty miles west of Ujain, were deputed. The Máhárána of Udepúr reported that he had sent Ráo Mukráj Dhabhai from Udepúr towards Mandeshwart with troops and artillery.

While Muhammad Khán was still at Gwáliár, an urgent letter came from Khán Daurán Khán. As the Mahrattas intended to cross the Narbada, it was necessary that, without further delay, the Nawáb should proceed by forced marches, not even staying at Sironj. He should get to the river in time to oppose the crossing. Four months had already been wasted. On receipt of these orders, Mukím Khán was sent on in advance, and after some opposition made good his way to Sironj. Sa'dat Khán was sent to Mandeshwar, and Daúd Khán to Sárangpur ‡

When Muhammad Khán reached Sádhaurah,§ eighteen miles beyond Saráe Nau|| to the south in the direction of Ujain, a letter written in Jamadi II, 1143, (Dec. 1730), was received from Asaf Jáh Nizám-ul Mulk. T This noble, after congratulations on Muhammad Khán's appointment, proposed that they should meet at the Narbada to concert common measures against the opponents of Islám. Nizam-ul Mulk had crossed at Fardánpur** in order to quell a revolt in Laklána,++ and the opportunity would not recur as he seldom visited that part of his Subah. Muhammad Khán accepted the proposal, saying, that as the Mahrattas at the instigation of the Hindus of Hindústán intended to ravage the whole of Málwá, he trusted that Nizám-ul Mulk as the champion of Islám would stop them at the ferries on the Narbada.

On the 17th Rajab, 1143 H. (15th January, 1731), Muhammad Khán reached Sarangpur, about fifty miles from Ujain. Hearing of his approach, Mulhár Holkar, who with twenty thousand men was plundering the country, sent his baggage and heavy stores across the Narbada, and lightly equipped continued the investment of Shahjahanpur, a town about eleven miles

*Now in the Jhansi district.

+ About 78 miles N. W. of Ujain.
† About 52 miles N. E. of Ujain.
& Lat. 24° 37'; Long. 77° 39′.

|| Lat. 24° 48′; Long. 77° 39′.

¶ The only other letter of his to Muhammad Khán preserved, of a date prior to this one, is a report of his fight with Ráo Bhím Háda of Kotah, Rájah Gaj Singh Narwari, Diláwar Khán, Sayyad Sher Khán, Bábar khán, Dost Muhammad Khan and Farhat Khán. It took place on the 13th Sha'ban. The year 1796 S. (1719 A. D.) is given in Tod, II, 469.


** Dowson's Elliot, VII, 498. A pass half way between Aurangabúd and Burhán

++ This place is not traced.

south-west of Sárangpur and about twenty-one miles north-east of Ujain.

The day that the Muhammadans drew near to Sárangpur, about an hour to sunset, while the men were still scattered on the line of march, the enemy suddenly appeared and showed fight. The war howdahs ('amári) having been taken off, Muhammad Khán got into a palki and started at the head of a small force. The enemy, as their custom was, spread out and came on in all directions. Soon, however, they fled "like crows on seeing a bow," six of them were killed, their heads brought in and their horses captured. Night coming on they were not pursued.

On the 19th Rajab, 1143 H. (17th January 1731), the army reached. Shahjahanpur from Sárangpur: and the next day they encamped near the village of Talodri. In the afternoon the enemy made their appearance and troops were moved out against them. On Muhammad Khán’s mounting and advancing, they gave way and were followed for three los. Seventy of them were slain by sword and spear. The heads and horses were brought in, with six or seven prisoners. Owing to the darkness the pursuit was stopped at one watch of the night, and the troops returned to camp. The people of the country were so frightened, that the Mahrattas left only one trooper in a town or village to collect their demands. After Muhammad Khán's arrival, however, and their defeat, the Mahrattas themselves were glad to withdraw beyond the Narbada. Ujain Dár-ul-fath was reached on the 22nd Rajab, 1143 H. (20th January 1731).

Spies now brought word that the Mahrattas, leaving their baggage on the other side of the Narbada, were coming across to plunder the towns and villages of Málwá. They were reported to have invested the town of Boláe.* Accordingly on the 11th Sha'bán, 1143 H. (8th Feb. 1731), Muhammad Khán set up his tents and took the field again, turning towards Dhár.† Of all the contingents, that of Kunwar Bahádur of Orchha was the only one which had arrived.

While Muhammad Khán went towards Dhár, he sent his son, Ahmad Khán, with Mukím Khán, Yár Muhammad Khán, and Dáler Khán at the head of 12,000 horse and 20,000 foot to deal with Holkar in the direction of Sárangpur and Shahjahanpur. The invaders were driven away towards Mandeshwar, after they had plundered in parganah Boláe. Then Yár Muhammad Khán made friends secretly with Mulhár Holkar, and the two chiefs exchanged turbans. As a pretence the army was taken towards Máhidpur,‡ and the traitor told Holkar that the country of Ujain was left

* About 47 miles N. E. of Ujain and 14 miles S. E. of Shahjahanpúr.

† About 50 miles S. W. of Ujain.

20 miles N. of Ujain and 38 miles W. of Shahjahánpúr.

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