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Thus the plural of biü“ a boy' is bé in the nom. and bén in the oblique cases ; gốt "a house", in the plural is goti and gotin ; "cattle” (plural) is gölé and gölen ; “women" is tshügoyu, obl. tshügoyun. Boda “ fathers”, obl. bodan ; apshi "horses", obl. apshan. ADJECTIVES do not seem to change for the gender.
1st Person. N. moñ (with intrans. verbs)
bà or beng mi-sa) (with transitive verbs
with transitive I
bà-sa in the Present and
verbs in the PreFuture)
sent and Future beng-sa
G. mi or miü
assü D, mà- .
... to us
assi-za Acc. mon-ze (with Present
and Future Tenses) Abl. mon-yono or mon-deo from me assü-yono or assü-deo ... ... from us Instr. mi-ya (with Past
by us Tense of Trans. verbs.)
2nd Person. N. tii (with intransitive V.)
tsi....... ti-sa ortü-sa (with transitive thou
or tsi-sa (with Verbs in Present and Fut.)
trans. V. in Pres, and
ye G. tiüi
tsü-1'a. Acc. tu-ze (with Present
thee and Future Tenses)
you Abl. ti-yono
from thee Instr. ti-ya (with Past
tsü-yono ..... Tense of transitive V.)
tsi-ya 3rd Person.
from you by you
The Intransitive Verb “to go".
té gyéani or gyéün ...... they went 3. sa gyani ... she went
Perfect Tense. 1. mi gyéüis (? gyé-hüs)* I have (or bà gyéüsis (? gyé-hüñs) we have gone
had) gone 2. tü gyé-àstu ...... thou hast gone tsé gyé-àstin ye
have gone 3. so gyé-astu
they have gone Future Tense. mon byüko...... I will go (the other persons of this tense are the same).
he has gone
* See Past Tense of Auxiliary Verb “to be”.
THE DEFECTIVE AUXILIARY “to be”.
Past. 1. mos or mi hdís
... I am
moñ hüs 2. tü or ti hàña...
... thou art
tüi hüa (near) or àstu (far) thou wast 3. so hás
he is so hüa or àstu... 1. bà or beng hands
bà nẵs 2. tsi hàni
tsi hüi or àstin
ye were 3. té hàni they are té hün or àstin
The TRANSITIVE Verb has some peculiarities about its subjects. In the first place, all Tenses except the Past take the second nominative form of Pronouns, mà-sa, ti-sa, &c., and they add the particle sa to substantives in the nominative. Secondly, the Past Tense puts the subject in the Instrumentative case, and the object in the nominative, the verbal inflection agreeing with the latter (not in gender, however, but in person), so as alınost to assume a Passive form. But as there is a separate Passive, this Tense may be most nearly compared with the Hindustani Transitive Past e. g., us-ne elc aurat màri (Hind.) " he struck a woman" where the verb is in the feminine to agree with the object “woman”. So in the Bròkpà dialect : Tashis-ya moñ kutudhös “ Tashi struck me”, lit. "by Tashi I was struck”, where “ kutudhös" is the Past verb-form agreeing with the 1st person singular. The 1st persons singular and plural (when occurring as objects of the action) have each a particular form of the verb assigned to them, while the remaining persons have a common form.
With this explanation we will proceed to the
CONJUGATION OF A TRANSITIVE VERB.
Kutisti = (in order) to strike, (on account of) striking.
Kuti = strike.
PRESENT FUTURE TENSE.
bà-sa cauties .. we strike, &c. Icutinis ditto (fem.)
Icutyuña thou strikest 2. tii-sa (m.) &c.
tsü-sa kutyeni .........ye strike, &c. kutinia ditto (f.) 80-sa kutyàlla he strikes &c. 3.
sà-sa kutini she strikes &c. té-sa kutyàn .........they strike,&c.
1. mà sa kutiko ...... I will strike (the other persons do not vary from this).
Future Preterit Tense. 1. má-sa kuti-su hüs... I was about bà-sa Icuti-su hüss... we were about to strike
to strike 2. tü-sa kuti-su hüa ... thou &c. tsi-sa Icuti-su hüi 3. so-sa Icuti-su hüa he &c.
té-sa Icuti-su hün
1. mà-sa kutetto if I strike (the other persons and tenses do not vary from
1. mi kutellas... I am or have been | beng kutellañs we are og have struck
been struck 2. tü Icutella thou &c.
tsi Icutellan 3. so Icutella he &c.
they &c. When there is a Dative case with a Transitive Past tense, the verb may agree with it in person as it would with the direct object :
E. g. Tü-ya tiü apsh måra dötös = thou gavest thy horse to me. Where the verb agrees with the person of the person in the Dative. In short when there is both a direct object and a dative, one of which is the 1st person (Singular or Plural), the verb agrees with that person by preference, as
E. g. So-ya moñ gobà-ra dötös = He gave me to the head-man. and
so-ya mà-ra apsh el dötös = He gave a horse to me. Where the 1st person (whether direct object as in the first example, or dative as in the second) governs the verb.
But mi-ya miü apsh tisà-ra det = I gave my horse to thee.
BROKPA VERSION OF THE 1ST STORY IN FORBES' PERSIAN GRAMMAR. Aflatun-ra ek müsh-ya shunàt: Tü kishti-à-rü hatule sar batö, Plato-to
man-by it-was-asked : thou ship-to many years satest, tso-a-rü na-zito yé zit? sea-to (wonderful) what was seen ?
Aflatun-ya razit : tsoa baong 1m2 - 50 100- gato zit
Plato by it-was-said: of the sea this me-by wonderful was seen moñ tràlobo pà-'r nüpàdös. I safely side-to arrived.
ANALYSIS : Of the verbs, shunat is the Past Tense Transitive answering to the typical kutet, with its subject müsh-ya in the Instrumentative case. Batö is 2nd Person Sing of the Past tense of an Intransitive verb, thus answering to the form go of the specimen verb given above. Kishtià-frü is dative, from kishti-à obl. crude form of kishti (a foreign word). Tsòa is oblique of tso (the Tibetan word for “lake"). Nà-žito (lit. “not seen”) is negative of Past Participle of following verb (to see); zit is Past tense transitive agreeing with its object yé “what” (i. e., not taking the termination in-ös or eñs appropriated to the 1st persons sing, and plural); the instrumentative case of the agent, tü-ya, is understood. Razit is the same form as shunàt, and so is zit which follows. Nüpàdös seems at first sight abnormal, for “to arrive” is an intransitive verb, and yet it has taken the form peculiar to the Past of transitive verbs. But in reality it is quite normal : only the Bròkpà verb means “ to cause to arrive" (P. rasànidan). E. g. mi-ya dək nüpàt “ I delivered the post” (lit. "by me the post was caused to arrive'). Thus moñ....... nüpàdös of the text, is literally: “I ...... was caused to arrive" or, as we should say: “I arrived.” The full form would be: Kishti-ya moñ nüpàdös (lit. by the ship I was caused to arrive) " the ship caused me to arrive.'
But although this Past tense of Transitive Verbs so much resembles a Passive in construction, yet there is as much distinction kept up in the