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Thus the plural of bii; “a boy” is be in the nom. and ben in the oblique cases; göf “a house”, in the plural is gotá and got in ; “cattle”

(plural) is golé and gölen ; “women” is tshigoyu, obl. tshigoyun.

“fathers”, obl, bodan ; apsh; “horses”, obl. apshan. ADJECTIVES do not seem to change for the gender, PRONOUNS.

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I3oda Plural. 63 or beng .................. bā-sa with transitive Ol' verbs in the Pre- 9 we

sent and Futur beng-sa. & €

Tenses *88% ........................... OUll." asso-ra ........................ to us

assii-za. * * * * * * * * * * * * ~ * * * * * g g g g g to TIS

assil-yono or assii-deo

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**-*........................ to you £8%-26........ you osit-yono ..................... from you *** ........................ by you

3rd Person.

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ten or p’héân of them ten-da or p’héân-da to them tén-ga or p’héân-ga them

from them by them

tén- or p'héilm-yono té- or p'hé-ya

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2.

THE VIERE.

The Intransitive Verb “to go”.
IByåstå = (in order) to go. -
Byå-su = about to go.
JByuñto = in going, or, whilst going.
Gyéto = gone or having gone. Bo go (Imperative).

INDICATIVE MOOD.

Present Future Tense.
Singular. Plural.

by usis... I go (masc.) . mos; or *} or will go byenis............ we go or will go bânis... I go (fem.)

, ti, {o o o #st byén?............ ye go, &c. ło e e o e o e 4 o' to he goes by&n ....... ..... they go, &c. sa bon? ......... she goes - - - Aorist. m0% byū ............... I go bd byū? ..................... we go til byws ............... thou goest #87 byeo..................... ye go , so byws.................. he goes byén?..................... they go

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gy?s... ditto (fem.) syéüsis ................. ... we went ti; {!. ... thou wentest (m.) ts? qué or quéiłł t; gyéâq ditto (fem.) 82 g/6 Ol' 93/64%. . . . . . . . . . . . ye wen | 80 90 . . . . . . he went gyéani or gyéin ...... they went sa gyan? ... she went

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Future Tense. moji byüko...... I will go (the other persons of this tense are the same).

* See Past Tense of Auxiliary Werb “to be”.

THE DEFECTIVE AUXILLARY “to be”.

Present. Past. 1. most or mi hassis ..... ....I am 'most his ..................... I was 2. til or to hafia........ to a to to e g is thou art | til hila (near) or östu (far) thou wast 3. So his ....... ... ...........he is so hia or ësto............... he was 1. or beng hānis ......... we are húñs ..................... WG Were 2. tsi hână ..................... ye are ts? hio or āstin ............ye were 3. f6 h&n? ..................... they are him or östin ............they were

The TRANSITIVE Verb has some peculiarities about its subjects. In the first place, all Tenses except the Past take the second nominative form of Pronouns, mā-sa, to-sa, &c., and they add the particle sa to substantives in the nominative. Secondly, the Past Tense puts the subject in the Instrumentative case, and the object in the nominative, the verbal inflection agreeing with the latter (not in gender, however, but in person), so as almost to assume a Passive form. But as there is a separate Passive, this Tense may be most nearly compared with the Hindustani Transitive Past e.g., us-ne es; aurat mari (Hind.) “he struck a woman”; where the verb is in the feminine to agree with the object “woman”. So in the Brökpā dialect : Tāshīs-ya moji kutudhës “Tashi struck me”, lit. “by Tashi I was struck”, where “skułudhös” is the Past verb-form agreeing with the 1st person singular. The 1st persons singular and plural (when occurring as objects of the action) have each a particular form of the verb assigned to them, while the remaining persons have a common form.

With this explanation we will proceed to the

CONJUGATION OF A TRANSITIVE VERB. Futisti = (in order) to strike, (on account of) striking. ICułi-su = about to strike. ICutyuñto = in striking, or whilst striking. A utedho = having struck. IMPERATIVE. ICuti = strike. INDICATIVE MOOD. PRESENT FUTURE TENSE. Singular. Plural. leutyuñs I strike (masc.) 1. ma-Sa | or will strike bà-sa kutyen’s ......... We strike, &c. sculin is ditto (fem.) soutyuña thou strikest 2. til-sa | (m.) &c. /cutinia ditto (f.) {. souty&lla he strikes &c. sā-sa /cutini she strikes &c. té-sa kutyan .........they strike,&c.

Ésil-sa kutyeni .........ye strike, &c.

AORIST. 1. ma-sa kutyū ......... I strike bā-sa scuffyiiff. ............ we strike 2. til-sa kutyuñ.........thou strikest tsā-sa kutyen?............ ye strike 3. So-sa kutyuff ......... he strikes té-sa kutyen? ............ they strike |PAST TENSE. Instr. Object, Verb. English. S. 1. mi-ya Y *9 s: (masc.) y me 2. ti-ya * { kutedhts (fem) } I was struck by thee 3. 80-ya scuted/hesis we were struck by him Pl, 1. beng-ya (the rest) kutet } thou, he, ye or they by us 2. tsā-ya —wast, was or were struck | by you 3. teñ-ya J by them PERTECT TENSE. Singular. Plural. 1. ma-sa kutyüs ...I have (or had) bà-sa kutyūsis ...... we have struck struck -2. til-sa kuté-àstu thou hast struck tsā-sa souté-àstin ...ye have struck 3. So-sa kułé-àstu ...he has struck té-Sa scuté-àstin . ...they have struck EUTURE TENSE, 1. ma-sa kutáko...... I will strike (the other persons do not vary from this). IFuture Preterit Tense. 1. ma-sa kuti-su his... I was about ba-Sa 'cuti-su hisis... we were about to strike to strike 2. tii-sa kuti-su hila ... thou &c. tsi-sa kuti-su hit ... ye &c. 3. So-sa /cuti-su hila ... he &c. té-sa Jeuti-su him ... they &c. CONDITIONAL MOOD. 1. ma-sa kutetto if I strike (the other persons and tenses do not vary from this form). BASSIVE. 1. mi kutellas... I am or have been beng scutellañs ...... we are or have - struck been struck 2. til scutella ... thou &c. tsi scussellan ......... ye &c. 3. so scutella ... he &c. kutellan ............ they &c.

When there is a Dative case with a Transitive Past tense, the verb

may agree with it in person as it would with the direct object :

E. g. Thi-ya tii, apsh māra détós = thou gavest thy horse to me. Where the verb agrees with the person of the person in the Dative. In short when there is both a direct object and a dative, one of which is the 1st person (Singular or Plural), the verb agrees with that person by preference, as

E. g. So-ya most gobā-ra, dötös = He gave me to the head-man. and so-ya má-ra apsh esc dôtós = He gave a horse to me. Where the 1st person (whether direct object as in the first example, or dative as in the second) governs the verb.

But mi-ya miil apsh tisã-ra det = I gave my horse to thee.

IBROKPA. VERSION OF THE 1ST STORY IN FORBEs’ PERSIAN GRAMMAR. Aflatum-ra ek mish-ya shunat: Tii kishti-à-rii hatuk sar bató, I’lato-to a man-by it-was-asked: thou ship-to many years Satest, #s6-a-ri na-gito zit & sea-to (wonderful) what was seen P Aflatun-ya raz it . #s6-a harang mi-ya nã-zito zit IPlato by it-was-said: of the sea this me-by wonderful was seen anofi trčlobo på-’r nipádós. I safely side-to arrived. ANALYSIs: Of the verbs, shunat is the Past Tense Transitive answering to the typical kutet, with its subject mish-ya in the Instrumentative case. JBató is 2nd Person Sing. of the Past tense of an Intransitive verb, thus answering to the form go of the specimen verb given above. Kishtià-rü is dative, from scishti-à obl. crude form of kishti (a foreign word). Tsoa is oblique of tso (the Tibetan word for “lake”). Wā-zito (lit. “not seen”) is negative of Past Participle of following verb (to see); zit is Past tense transitive agreeing with its object ye “what” (i. e., not taking the termination in—6s or effis appropriated to the 1st persons sing, and plural); the instrumentative case of the agent, Wii-ya, is understood. Razit is the same form as shundt, and so is giff which follows. Nüpādās seems at first sight abnormal, for “to arrive” is an intransitive verb, and yet it has taken the form peculiar to the Past of transitive verbs. But in reality it is quite normal : only the Brökpā verb means “to cause to arrive” (P. rasănādan). E. g. mi-ya dāk niipat “I delivered the post” (lit. ‘by me the post was caused to arrive”). Thus moji......... müpèdós of the text, is literally : “I ... ... was caused to arrive” or, as we should say: “I arrived.” The full form would be : Kishti-ya moji mipädós (lit. by the ship I was caused to arrive) “the ship caused me to arrive.” But although this Past tense of Transitive Verbs so much resembles a Passive in construction, yet there is as much distinction kept up in the

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