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و

Thus the plural of biü“ a boy' is in the nom. and bén in the oblique cases ; gốt "a house", in the plural is goti and gotin ; "cattle” (plural) is gölé and gölen ; women" is tshügoyu, obl. tshügoyun. Boda “ fathers”, obl. bodan ; apshi "horses", obl. apshan. ADJECTIVES do not seem to change for the gender.

PRONOUNS.
Singular.

Plural.

1st Person. N. moñ (with intrans. verbs)

or beng mi-sa) (with transitive verbs

with transitive I

bà-sa in the Present and

verbs in the PreFuture)

sent and Future beng-sa

Tenses

or

we

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our

US

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ine

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G. mi or miü

my

assü D, mà- .

to me
assl-

... to us

assi-za Acc. mon-ze (with Present

and Future Tenses) Abl. mon-yono or mon-deo from me assü-yono or assü-deo ... ... from us Instr. mi-ya (with Past

by me
-la or beg-1

by us Tense of Trans. verbs.)

2nd Person. N. tii (with intransitive V.)

tsi....... ti-sa ortü-sa (with transitive thou

tsi-sa or

or tsi-sa (with Verbs in Present and Fut.)

trans. V. in Pres, and

ye G. tiüi

they

Fut.
D. tast-...

to thee
tsi

your

tsü-1'a. Acc. tu-ze (with Present

thee and Future Tenses)

tsü-ze..

you Abl. ti-yono

from thee Instr. ti-ya (with Past

tsü-yono ..... Tense of transitive V.)

tsi-ya 3rd Person.

to you

}

}

by thee

from you by you

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THE VERB.

The Intransitive Verb “to go".
Byàsti = (in order) to go.
Byà-su = about to go.
Byuñto = in going, or, whilst going.
Gyéto = gone or having gone. Bo -- go (Imperative),

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so go

{

he went

gyéani or gyéün ...... they went 3. sa gyani ... she went

Perfect Tense. 1. mi gyéüis (? gyé-hüs)* I have (or gyéüsis (? gyé-hüñs) we have gone

had) gone 2. gyé-àstu ...... thou hast gone tsé gyé-àstin ye

have gone 3. so gyé-astu

they have gone Future Tense. mon byüko...... I will go (the other persons of this tense are the same).

gyé-àstin

he has gone

* See Past Tense of Auxiliary Verb “to be”.

I was

THE DEFECTIVE AUXILIARY “to be”.
Present.

Past. 1. mos or mi hdís

... I am

moñ hüs 2. or ti hàña...

... thou art

tüi hüa (near) or àstu (far) thou wast 3. so hás

he is so hüa or àstu... 1. or beng hands

nẵs 2. tsi hàni

tsi hüi or àstin

ye were 3. hàni they are hün or àstin

they were

he was

we are

we were

ye are

The TRANSITIVE Verb has some peculiarities about its subjects. In the first place, all Tenses except the Past take the second nominative form of Pronouns, -sa, ti-sa, &c., and they add the particle sa to substantives in the nominative. Secondly, the Past Tense puts the subject in the Instrumentative case, and the object in the nominative, the verbal inflection agreeing with the latter (not in gender, however, but in person), so as alınost to assume a Passive form. But as there is a separate Passive, this Tense may be most nearly compared with the Hindustani Transitive Past e. g., us-ne elc aurat màri (Hind.) " he struck a woman" where the verb is in the feminine to agree with the object “woman”. So in the Bròkpà dialect : Tashis-ya moñ kutudhös Tashi struck me”, lit. "by Tashi I was struck”, where kutudhös" is the Past verb-form agreeing with the 1st person singular. The 1st persons singular and plural (when occurring as objects of the action) have each a particular form of the verb assigned to them, while the remaining persons have a common form.

With this explanation we will proceed to the

;

CONJUGATION OF A TRANSITIVE VERB.

Kutisti = (in order) to strike, (on account of) striking.
Kuti-su = about to strike.
Kutyusto = in striking, or whilst striking.
Kutedho = having struck.

IMPERATIVE.

Kuti = strike.
INDICATIVE MOOD.

PRESENT FUTURE TENSE.
Singular.

Plural.
kutyuss I strike (masc.)
1. -sa Og" will strike

-sa cauties .. we strike, &c. Icutinis ditto (fem.)

Icutyuña thou strikest 2. tii-sa (m.) &c.

tsü-sa kutyeni .........ye strike, &c. kutinia ditto (f.) 80-sa kutyàlla he strikes &c. 3.

-sa kutini she strikes &c. -sa kutyàn .........they strike,&c.

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1. sa kutiko ...... I will strike (the other persons do not vary from this).

Future Preterit Tense. 1. má-sa kuti-su hüs... I was about -sa Icuti-su hüss... we were about to strike

to strike 2. -sa kuti-su hüa ... thou &c. tsi-sa Icuti-su hüi 3. so-sa Icuti-su hüa he &c.

-sa Icuti-su hün

ye &c.

they &c.

CONDITIONAL MOOD.

1. -sa kutetto if I strike (the other persons and tenses do not vary from

this form).

PASSIVE.

ye &c.

1. mi kutellas... I am or have been | beng kutellañs we are og have struck

been struck 2. Icutella thou &c.

tsi Icutellan 3. so Icutella he &c.

they &c. When there is a Dative case with a Transitive Past tense, the verb may agree with it in person as it would with the direct object :

kutellan

E. g. -ya tiü apsh måra dötös = thou gavest thy horse to me. Where the verb agrees with the person of the person in the Dative. In short when there is both a direct object and a dative, one of which is the 1st person (Singular or Plural), the verb agrees with that person by preference, as

E. g. So-ya moñ gobà-ra dötös = He gave me to the head-man. and

so-ya -ra apsh el dötös = He gave a horse to me. Where the 1st person (whether direct object as in the first example, or dative as in the second) governs the verb.

But mi-ya miü apsh tisà-ra det = I gave my horse to thee.

a

BROKPA VERSION OF THE 1ST STORY IN FORBES' PERSIAN GRAMMAR. Aflatun-ra ek müsh-ya shunàt: kishti-à-hatule sar batö, Plato-to

man-by it-was-asked : thou ship-to many years satest, tso-a-na-zito zit? sea-to (wonderful) what was seen ?

Aflatun-ya razit : tsoa baong 1m2 - 50 100- gato zit

Plato by it-was-said: of the sea this me-by wonderful was seen moñ tràlobo -'r nüpàdös. I safely side-to arrived.

ANALYSIS : Of the verbs, shunat is the Past Tense Transitive answering to the typical kutet, with its subject müsh-ya in the Instrumentative case. Batö is 2nd Person Sing of the Past tense of an Intransitive verb, thus answering to the form go of the specimen verb given above. Kishtià-frü is dative, from kishti-à obl. crude form of kishti (a foreign word). Tsòa is oblique of tso (the Tibetan word for “lake"). -žito (lit. “not seen”) is negative of Past Participle of following verb (to see); zit is Past tense transitive agreeing with its object “what” (i. e., not taking the termination in-ös or eñs appropriated to the 1st persons sing, and plural); the instrumentative case of the agent, -ya, is understood. Razit is the same form as shunàt, and so is zit which follows. Nüpàdös seems at first sight abnormal, for “to arrive” is an intransitive verb, and yet it has taken the form peculiar to the Past of transitive verbs. But in reality it is quite normal : only the Bròkpà verb means “ to cause to arrive" (P. rasànidan). E. g. mi-ya dək nüpàt “ I delivered the post” (lit. "by me the post was caused to arrive'). Thus moñ....... nüpàdös of the text, is literally: “I ...... was caused to arrive" or, as we should say: “I arrived.” The full form would be: Kishti-ya moñ nüpàdös (lit. by the ship I was caused to arrive) " the ship caused me to arrive.'

But although this Past tense of Transitive Verbs so much resembles a Passive in construction, yet there is as much distinction kept up in the

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