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Thus the plural of biü “ a boy" is bé in the nom. and bén in the oblique cases; gôt "a house", in the plural is goti and gotin; "cattle" (plural) is gölé and gölen; women" is tshügoyu, obl. tshügoyun. Boda "fathers", obl. bodan; apshi "horses", obl. apshan. ADJECTIVES do not seem to change for the gender.

PRONOUNS.

Singular.

N. mon (with intrans. verbs)

mi-sa

or

(with transitive verbs
in the Present and
Future)

ma-sa

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N. tü (with intransitive V.)
ti-sa ortü-sa (with transitive thou
Verbs in Present and Fut.)

G. tiü

D. tisà-ra

Acc. tu-ze (with Present

and Future Tenses)

}

Abl. té-yono

Instr. so-ya (with Past
Tense of Trans. V.)

F

1st Person.

my

to me

from thee

Abl. tü-yono
Instr. ti-ya (with Past

Tense of transitive V.)} by thee

him

I

me

thee

they

to thee

2nd Person.

of him (do.)
to him

he (here or
there)

from him

} by

bà on beng

Bà sa

ΟΙ

beng-sa

assü

assi-ra assü-za

by him

3rd Person.

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tsi

tsü-ra.

tsü-ze...

Plural.

assü-yono or assü-deo ...... from us

bà-ya or beng-ya

by us

tsi......

tsi-sa or tsü-sa (with
trans. V. in Pres, and
Fut.

tsü-yono

tsi-ya

with

transitive

verbs in the Pre

sent and Future
Tenses

té or p'hé (with intr.

V.) té-sa (with tr. V.)

ten or p'héün
ten-da or p’héün-da
tén-za or p’héün-za

tén- or p’héün-yono
té- or p’hé-ya

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we

our to us

us

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.... from you

by you

they (here or there)

of them

to them

them

from them by them

1. moñ or mi

2. tü

3.

2. tü

3.

THE VERB.

The Intransitive Verb "to go".
Byàsti (in order) to go.
Byà-su about to go.

Byuñto in going, or, whilst going.

Gyéto = gone or having gone. Bo-go (Imperative).

S byuña
bînia

2 sa

1. moñ byü

2. tü byuñ
3. so byuñ.......

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Singular.

byuñs.....I go (masc.)

or will go
binis... I go (fem.)

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so byàlla....................... he goes
sa bîni

she goes

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INDICATIVE MOOD.

Present Future Tense.

thou goest ..... do. (fem.)

1. moñ { gös... I went (m.) gyîs... ditto (fem.)

2. tü gyé-àstu 3. so gyé-àstu

.... I go

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thou goest

he goes

S go thou wentest (m.)
gyéüa ditto (fem.)

{

so go
he went
sa gyani ... she went

Past

Aorist.

Perfect

1. mi gyéüs (? gyé-hüs)* I have (or

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Tense.

ba byin
tsi byeni..
té byeni...

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Plural.

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we go or will go

.........

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they go, &c.

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tsi gyé or gyéüi................................. ye went

té gyéani or gyéün

Tense.

bà gyéüñs (? gyé-hüñs) we have gone

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had) gone
..... thou hast gone tsé gyé-àstin
he has gone
té gyé-àstin
Future Tense.

mon byüko...... I will go (the other persons of this tense are the same).

See Past Tense of Auxiliary Verb "to be".

we go ye go they go

we went

they went

ye have gone they have gone

1. moñ or mi hàñs .........I am

2. tü or ti hàña...

3. so háñ

1. bà or beng hànis

2. tsi hàni

3. té hàni

THE DEFECTIVE AUXILIARY "to be".
Present.
Past.

1. mà sa

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2. tü-sa

3.

...thou art
.he is

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we are

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I was

moñ hüs
tü hüa (near) or àstu (far) thou wast
so hüa or àstu...
...he was

The TRANSITIVE Verb has some peculiarities about its subjects. In the first place, all Tenses except the Past take the second nominative form of Pronouns, mà-sa, ti-sa, &c., and they add the particle sa to substantives in the nominative. Secondly, the Past Tense puts the subject in the Instrumentative case, and the object in the nominative, the verbal inflection agreeing with the latter (not in gender, however, but in person), so as almost to assume a Passive form. But as there is a separate Passive, this Tense may be most nearly compared with the Hindustani Transitive Past e. g., us-ne ek aurat màri (Hind.) "he struck a woman"; where the verb is in the feminine to agree with the object woman". So in the Bròkpà dialect: Tàshis-ya mon kutudhös "Tashi struck me", lit. "by Tashi I was struck", where "kutudhös” is the Past verb-form agreeing with the 1st person singular. The 1st persons singular and plural (when occurring as objects of the action) have each a particular form of the verb assigned to them, while the remaining persons have a common form. With this explanation we will proceed to the

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bà hims

tsi hüi or àstin

té hün or àstin

Singular.
kutyuñs I strike (masc.)

or will strike
kutinis ditto (fem.)
kutyuña thou strikest
(m.) &c.

kutinia ditto (f.) Sso-sa kutyalla he strikes &c. sà-sa kutîni she strikes &c.

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CONJUGATION OF A TRANSITIVE VERB.

Kutisti (in order) to strike, (on account of) striking.
Kuti-su about to strike.

Kutyuñto in striking, or whilst striking.
Kutedho = having struck.

IMPERATIVE.

Kuti strike.
INDICATIVE MOOD.
PRESENT FUTURE TENSE.

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we strike, &c.

ye strike, &c.

té-sa kutyan .........they strike,&c.

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AORIST.

2. tü-sa kuti-su hüa ... 3. so-sa kuti-su hüa

(the rest) kutet{

PAST TENSE.

Verb.

Singular.

1. mà-sa kutyus ...I have (or had) struck

2. tü-sa kuté-àstu thou hast struck 3. so-sa kuté-àstu...he has struck

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kutudhös (masc.)
kutedhis (fem.)
kutedhens

bà-sa Tutyin

tsi-sa kutyeni......

té-sa kutyeni

}

PERFECT TENSE.

1. mi kutellas... I am or have been

struck

2. tü kutella ... thou &c. 3. so kutella

he &c.

I was struck

1

thou, he, ye or they

-wast, was or were struck

we were struck

PASSIVE.

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English.

FUTURE TENSE.

1. mà-sa kutiko......I will strike (the other persons do not vary from this).

Future Preterit Tense. 1. má-sa kuti-su hüs..... I was about

to strike thou &c. he &c.

tsi-sa kuti-su hüi

té-sa kuti-su hün

we strike

ye strike

they strike

Plural.

bà-sa Tutyins we have struck

beng kutellañs

tsi kutellan

té kutellan

tsi-sa kuté-àstin ...ye have struck
té-sa kuté-àstin. ...they have struck

by me

by thee

by him

bà-sa kuti-su hüñs... we were about

to strike

by us

by you

by them

...

CONDITIONAL MOOD.

1. mà-sa kutetto if I strike (the other persons and tenses do not vary from this form).

ye &c. they &c.

........... we are or have

......

been struck

ye &c.
they &c.

When there is a Dative case with a Transitive Past tense, the verb may agree with it in person as it would with the direct object :

thou gavest thy horse to me.

E. g. Tü-ya tiü apsh màra dötös Where the verb agrees with the person of the person in the Dative. In short when there is both a direct object and a dative, one of which is the 1st person (Singular or Plural), the verb agrees with that person by preference, as

E. g. So-ya moñ gobà-ra dötös = He gave me to the head-man. and so-ya mà-ra apsh ek dötös = He gave a horse to me. Where the 1st person (whether direct object as in the first example, or dative as in the second) governs the verb.

But mi-ya miü apsh tisà-ra det = I gave my horse to thee.

Aflatun-ra ek müsh-ya

BROKPA VERSION OF THE 1ST STORY IN FORBES' PERSIAN GRAMMAR. shunàt : Tü kishti-à-rü hatuk sar batö, Plato-to a man-by it-was-asked: thou ship-to many years satest, tsò-a-rü na-zito yé zit? sea-to (wonderful) what was seen ? Aflatun-ya razit:

tsò-a Plato by it-was-said: of the sea

moñ tràlobo pà-'r nüpàdös.

I

safely side-to arrived.

harang mi-ya nà-zito zit
this me-by wonderful was seen

ANALYSIS: Of the verbs, shunat is the Past Tense Transitive answering to the typical kutet, with its subject müsh-ya in the Instrumentative case. Batö is 2nd Person Sing. of the Past tense of an Intransitive verb, thus answering to the form go of the specimen verb given above. Kishtià-rü is dative, from kishti-à obl. crude form of kishti (a foreign word). Tsòa is oblique of tso (the Tibetan word for "lake"). Na-zito (lit. "not seen") is negative of Past Participle of following verb (to see); zit is Past tense transitive agreeing with its object yé “what” (i. e., not taking the termination in-ös or ens appropriated to the 1st persons sing. and plural); the instrumentative case of the agent, tü-ya, is understood. Razit is the same form as shunàt, and so is zit which follows. Nüpàdös seems at first sight abnormal, for "to arrive" is an intransitive verb, and yet it has taken the form peculiar to the Past of transitive verbs. But in reality it is quite normal: only the Bròkpà verb means "to cause to arrive" (P. rasànîdan). E. g. mi-ya dak nüpàt "I delivered the post" (lit. ' by me the post was caused to arrive'). Thus moñ................... nüpàdös of the text, is literally: “I ..... ............ was caused to arrive” or, as we should say: "I arrived." The full form would be: Kishti-ya moñ nüpàdös (lit. by the ship I was caused to arrive) "the ship caused me to arrive."

But although this Past tense of Transitive Verbs so much resembles a Passive in construction, yet there is as much distinction kept up in the

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