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mind of the speaker between it and the real Passive, as there is for instance in Hindustani between us-ne aurat màri, and aurat màri gaí. The sense is active though the form is passive. In the one case the agent is known and generally mentioned in the Instrumentative case ; in the other the agent is not known or mentioned.
DÁH-HANU LOVE SONG.
üshü Skishur qam gia cascue skyet-tò I young-man (pro. name mountain below if-I-look
of place) Bos paul gi-chao ; toto tos/cage sca, et-tò Father's home see makes; and above if-I-look
Numès payül zi-chus. Zü-lo Qodà nasîb tüni té. (name of woman) home see-makes. Pray God fate joined make. in genitive
- If I look below, from the Skishur mountain,
And if I look above,
our destinies may be united !" ANALYSIS : Skyet-tò is the Conditional, answering to kutet-tò. Payül would seem to be compounded of the Tibetan word yül“ village” and a prefix pa. Įi-chuñ is composed of the verb " to see", plus the 3rd pers. sing. of the aorist of the verb "to do", answering to the typical form kutyuí. Zu-lö is the Bròkpà form of the common Tibetan salutation jù or ju-lé, which is like the Hind. ji. Qodà (Khudà) and nasib are words borrowed from their Musalınàn neighbours, apparently in the absence of any words of the same meaning in their own dialect. Té is the Imperative.
àże ài-sa (before Trans.
àre-sa Verbs not in Past Tense) G. àño....
...of a she-goat àïo ..... D. & Loc. àï-re... to, or at a she-goat àïo-1'e Acc. àï...
.....a she-goat àño. Abl. àï-20
from a she-goat àïo-20
Trans. verbs in
.....of she-goats to, or at she-goats
...she-goats from she-goats ... with she-goats
... by she goats
houses gòr-sa (before Tr. v.
gori-sa not in Past Tense) G. gòr-o .....of a house
... of houses D. & Loc. gòr-re ...to, or at a house gòro-ra
to, or at houses (sometimes—a) Acc. gòr or gòr-re a house
góro or goro-ra ... houses Abl. gòr-20 .........from a house
from houses (in some-no) Instr. gòr-i .........by a house goro-20 .......... by houses
(before Trans. Verbs in Past Tense)
Plural. N. nú or ào or ánu or
ni or ani aiñ (fem. ni or á or
(before Tr. v.
this núsa or anu-sa (f. ni-sa
not Past T.) or ani-sa (before Tr.
V. not in Past T.) G. niso or niséi, or
nino or anino ... ... ...of these ani-so, ani-sei D. nisé-re
... to this
rino-ré or anino-ré ... to these Acc. nisé-or à in ...this
nino or anino.... ....these Abl nisé-zo...
.from this nino-zo or anino-z0 ...from these Instr. nisi
nino-za or anino-za ... by these When these pronouns are prefixed to substantives, their case-affixes are detached from them and placed after the substantives only, in the form peculiar to the latter ; e. g., ani mazàr-tang-o, not ani-80 mazăr-tang-o. N. rò (ré fem )
ré or pero (f. ra) rò-sa (f. ré-sa).
ré-sa (f. ra-sa) bethat
those before Tr. V. not
fore Tr. V. not in Past Tense
Past Tense G. sò or aso (f. réso)...of that
reno or peràno ......of those also asé-séi
(f. rano) D. sé-ré or asé-ré ...... to that reno-re or peràno-re to those (f. résé-ré)
(f. rano-re) Acc. sè or asé or do... that
or peràno (f. résé)
(f. rano) Abl. sé-zo or asé-20...from that reno-20 or peràno-z0... from thoso (f. resé-20)
(f. rano-20) Instr. sési or åsi ... ... by that reno-za or perano-... by those (f, rési)
za (f. rano-za)
Personal Adjectival Pronouns. N. Ké or kési (?) who
màng G. Icéso of whom tàno
they own D. késé-re
his own Acc. késé (?)
whom Abl. Icésé-zo (?) from whom tsano
your own Instr. Icé-si
their own The Relative Pronoun is used like the Hindustani jo, jis-ka, &c., followed by a corresponding demonstrative pronoun later in the sentence : a pronoun do seems to be specially employed for this, like so in Hindustani, but the other demonstrative pronouns are also used.
THE IRREGULAR VERB “ to become.”
Present. Infinitive and Supine : bono “to become," or, "in order to become.” Imperative, bé “become."
S. 1. moñ bilos*
2. tu bilo
ro bilo or bil Pl. 1. bé biles
I have become, i. e., I am thou hast become, i. e.,
thou art he, she has become, i, e., is we have become, i. e., are ye
have become, i. e., are they have become, i. e.,
2. tso bilet
S. 1. mon bilalos
2. ta bilalo
2. tsa bilàlet
I had become thou hadst become he, she had become we had become ye had become they had become