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mind of the speaker between it and the real Passive, as there is for instance in Hindustani between us-ne aurat màri, and aurat màri gaí. The sense is active though the form is passive. In the one case the agent is known and generally mentioned in the Instrumentative case ; in the other the agent is not known or mentioned.

DÁH-HANU LOVE SONG.

Mi müshü

üshü Skishur qam gia cascue skyet-I young-man (pro. name mountain below if-I-look

of place) Bos paul gi-chao ; toto tos/cage sca, et-Father's home see makes; and above if-I-look

Numès payül zi-chus. -lo Qodà nasîb tüni . (name of woman) home see-makes. Pray God fate joined make. in genitive

- If I look below, from the Skishur mountain,
My father's home is seen (makes itself seen);

And if I look above,
“ Nümé's home is seen. Grant, O God, that

our destinies may be united !" ANALYSIS : Skyet-is the Conditional, answering to kutet-. Payül would seem to be compounded of the Tibetan word yül“ village” and a prefix pa. Įi-chuñ is composed of the verb " to see", plus the 3rd pers. sing. of the aorist of the verb "to do", answering to the typical form kutyuí. Zu-is the Bròkpà form of the common Tibetan salutation or ju-, which is like the Hind. ji. Qodà (Khudà) and nasib are words borrowed from their Musalınàn neighbours, apparently in the absence of any words of the same meaning in their own dialect. is the Imperative.

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}...

.... she-goats

N. à

a she-goat

àże ài-sa (before Trans.

àre-sa Verbs not in Past Tense) G. àño....

...of a she-goat àïo ..... D. & Loc. àï-re... to, or at a she-goat àïo-1'e Acc. àï...

.....a she-goat àño. Abl. àï-20

from a she-goat àïo-20
àï-séi nàlà ......with a she-goat àïo-séi-nàlà.
Instr. àño ...(before... by a she goat año-za

Trans. verbs in
Past Tense)

.....of she-goats to, or at she-goats

...she-goats from she-goats ... with she-goats

... by she goats

}

N. gòr

....a house
gòri

houses gòr-sa (before Tr. v.

gori-sa not in Past Tense) G. gòr-o .....of a house

gòro....

... of houses D. & Loc. gòr-re ...to, or at a house gòro-ra

to, or at houses (sometimes—a) Acc. gòr or gòr-re a house

góro or goro-ra ... houses Abl. gòr-20 .........from a house

go?0-20

from houses (in some-no) Instr. gòr-i .........by a house goro-20 .......... by houses

(before Trans. Verbs in Past Tense)

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or

...by this

Singular.

Plural. N. nú or ào or ánu or

ni or ani aiñ (fem. ni or á or

ni-sa

ani-sa

these ani)

(before Tr. v.

this núsa or anu-sa (f. ni-sa

not Past T.) or ani-sa (before Tr.

V. not in Past T.) G. niso or niséi, or

of this

nino or anino ... ... ...of these ani-so, ani-sei D. nisé-re

... to this

rino-or anino-ré ... to these Acc. nisé-or à in ...this

nino or anino.... ....these Abl nisé-zo...

.from this nino-zo or anino-z0 ...from these Instr. nisi

nino-za or anino-za ... by these When these pronouns are prefixed to substantives, their case-affixes are detached from them and placed after the substantives only, in the form peculiar to the latter ; e. g., ani mazàr-tang-o, not ani-80 mazăr-tang-o. N. (fem )

or pero (f. ra) -sa (f. ré-sa).

-sa (f. ra-sa) bethat

those before Tr. V. not

fore Tr. V. not in Past Tense

Past Tense G. or aso (f. réso)...of that

reno or peràno ......of those also asé-séi

(f. rano) D. -or asé-...... to that reno-re or peràno-re to those (f. résé-)

(f. rano-re) Acc. or asé or do... that

or peràno (f. résé)

(f. rano) Abl. sé-zo or asé-20...from that reno-20 or peràno-z0... from thoso (f. resé-20)

(f. rano-20) Instr. sési or åsi ... ... by that reno-za or perano-... by those (f, rési)

za (f. rano-za)

reno

...... those

my own

assano

our own

Relative Pronoun.

Personal Adjectival Pronouns. N. Ké or kési (?) who

màng G. Icéso of whom tàno

they own D. késé-re

to whom
resano or tonio

his own Acc. késé (?)

whom Abl. Icésé-zo (?) from whom tsano

your own Instr. Icé-si

by whom
rerano or tomo

their own The Relative Pronoun is used like the Hindustani jo, jis-ka, &c., followed by a corresponding demonstrative pronoun later in the sentence : a pronoun do seems to be specially employed for this, like so in Hindustani, but the other demonstrative pronouns are also used.

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THE IRREGULAR VERB “ to become.”

Present. Infinitive and Supine : bono “to become," or, "in order to become.” Imperative, “become."

G

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S. 1. moñ bilos*

2. tu bilo

3.

ro bilo or bil Pl. 1. biles

I have become, i. e., I am thou hast become, i. e.,

thou art he, she has become, i, e., is we have become, i. e., are ye

have become, i. e., are they have become, i. e.,

are

Perfect.

moñ bilies
tu biliesh

2. tso bilet
3. bilen

rébili
bilies
tsa bilieti
*a blue

ro bilàlo

S. 1. mon bilalos

2. ta bilalo

3.
Pl. 1. bilales

2. tsa bilàlet
3. bilàle

Pluperfect.
mon bilalyis
tu bilàlie
rébildlie
blàlies
tsa bilàliet
ra balalae

I had become thou hadst become he, she had become we had become ye had become they had become

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