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THE INTRANSITIVE VERB “ to go.”
2. to bòạé
3. ro bòzéž
2. tso bòzàt
Pl. 1. bé gàleato
if we had gone 2. tso gàletto
if ye had gone 3. ré gielto
if they had gone Masc.
English. PI. 1. bé gàJeato
if we had gone 2. too gàletto
if ye had gone 3. ré gietto
if they had gone Probably all these tenses (Imperfect or Past, Perfect, and Pluperfect) are compounded of some auxiliary verb-tense running as follows (there is actually such a verb meaning “ I came, &c."); Masc.
..aliès alo ..
...aliè to which are prefixed the various verbal stems or complete verb tenses, person for person. In many cases the combination has subsequently suffered from elision,
E. 9., bil-alos, &c., would be an uncorrupted example. The stem and the auxiliary tense are both perfect, and the former does not vary with the persons.
In galos, galo, &c., the verb root (probably gà) has suffered its vowel to coalesce with the initial vowel of the auxiliary.
In bozum-alòs, boz-alo, &c., the auxiliary has destroyed the final syllables of the verb tense, excepting in the 1st pers. sing. and the 3rd pers. Plural.
In åsilòs, bilós, &c., the initial vowel of the auxiliary has itself suffered alteration from the pressure of the verb-root before it.
In the root as (of èsilos “I was”), and the root bi or be (of bilos ? bialòs, “I have become”), we have perhaps representatives of the universal Arian roots, bhu and as for the idea of “ being” or existence.”
In some verbs the terminations are òs, -•, -Ò.
If again we subdivide the auxiliary tense alòs, &c., into its root al and its terminations -òs, -0, -0, ès, -et, and -e, it would appear that it was by the addition of these latter to the Present Future Tense, that the Present Tense was formed : E. g. Pr. Fut. Tense. Termn. Present Tense. Pr. Tut. Tense. Termn, Present Tense. bozum òs ... bozumus. bòzon
bòzonàs. bozé.... bozao (ñ). bòzàt
et bòzat. bozéi 0 ... bozéu (ñ). | bòzen
TRANSITIVE VERBS are conjugated like intransitive ones. show traces of the quasi-Passive formation with the subject in the Instrumentative Case, such as we find in the Past Tenses in Hindustani and in
the Dàrd dialect of Dàh-Hanu (see above). As in the latter, the subject takes a special form in the Past tenses, the singular taking an affix or termination, generally -z, and the Plural -şa (cf. Dàh-Hanu -ya); but unlike in that dialect the verb agrees with its proper subject (in the Instrumentative case) and not with its object. In the other Tenses the subject takes the affix -sa as in the Dah-Hanu dialect. This in both dialects is now a simple variety of the nominative.
These facts I think corroborate the hypothesis that the Dàh-Hanu people formed an earlier migration than the Dràs Dàrds. For they retain most fully the quasi-Passive formation of the Past of Transitive Verbs, which we find again in the Indian dialects (from which they had less opportunity of borrowing than the Dràs people had). It was therefore perhaps an early Dàrd formation of which all but slight traces have been lost by the later Dàrds.
THE TRANSITIVE VERB " to strike."
- Icutio lcuni “in striking."
Verbal Adjectives: kutiensto " striking,” kutéta and kutetato “having struck."
Fem. S. 1. moñ-sa kutémus
moosi-sa kutémis 2. tu-sa Icutàoñ
tu-sa Icutàñ (?) 3. ro-sa kuténo or kutéuñ ré-sa kuténi Pl. 1. bé-sa kutónàs
bé-sc Jactòas 2. tso-sa Icutiàt
tsà-sa kutiàt 3. ré-sa Icuténa (or kuty- rà-sa Icutéiñ (?)
S. 1. mos-sa Icuten
2. tu-sa Icute? or Icuté
3. 10-sa Icuté Pl. 1. be-sa Icutòn
2. tso-sa Icutiat 3. ré-sa Icuten
I strike or shall strike
thou strikest on wilt strike ré-sa kutii he, she strikes or will strike
we strike ogu shall strike
ye strike or will strike a- sco cautemo they strike or will strike Compound Future.
moñ-sa Icutiòno hànis I am to strike
S. 1. moñ-sa Tcutiòno hans
2. tu-sa Icutiòno haoñ 3. ro-sa Icutiono haos
S. 1. mi kutàs (in some verbs -òs). mi kutiès I struck
thou struckest 3. se-si Icutàu(-0)
re-si Kuti he, she struck Pl. 1. asso-za kutiès
asso-za Icutiéës we struck 2. tso-za kutiét
tsa-za kutièti 3. reno-za Icutié
rano-za kutieë they struck
Perfect and Pluperfect.
I have on had struck 2. to catalo(cute-aslòn) to cautal
thou hast or hadst struck 3. se-si Icutàlo
he, she has or had struck Pl. 1. asso-zo Icutiàlis asso-za kutiàlyis (?) we have or had struck
2. tso-za kutiàlet tso-za kutiàliet (?) ye have or had struck 3. reno-za Icutidlé
they have or had struck
struck 2. tu-sa Icuteto if thou strikest tu-sa kutàlòto if thou hast or
hadst struck 3. ro-sa kutéito if he strike
if he has on had
struck Pl. 1. bé-sa kutunto if we strike bé-sa Tcutàlezto if we have or had
struck 2. tso-sa kutiàtto if
struck 3. re-sa kuteñto if they strike ré-sa Tutilto if they have or had