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THE INTRANSITIVE VERB “ to go.
Infinitive and Supine : bozono "to go" and "in order to go."
Imperative : bo or boze "go."
Verbal Adjectives: božensto "going", bozeta “having gone."

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bòzië

2. to bòạé

3. ro bòzéž
Pl. 1. bòzon (or bon ?)

2. tso bòzàt
3. bòzen

tsà bozàté
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Pl. 1. gàleato

galaseto

if we had gone 2. tso gàletto

tsà galàteto

if ye had gone 3. ré gielto

galato

if they had gone Masc.

Fem.

English. PI. 1. gàJeato

galaseto

if we had gone 2. too gàletto

tså galàteto

if ye had gone 3. gietto

galato

if they had gone Probably all these tenses (Imperfect or Past, Perfect, and Pluperfect) are compounded of some auxiliary verb-tense running as follows (there is actually such a verb meaning “ I came, &c."); Masc.

Fem.
Masc.

Fem.
S. alós
....alis Pl. alès

..aliès alo ..

..alé
alet ....

aliet clo...

...alié
alè.....

...aliè to which are prefixed the various verbal stems or complete verb tenses, person for person. In many cases the combination has subsequently suffered from elision,

E. 9., bil-alos, &c., would be an uncorrupted example. The stem and the auxiliary tense are both perfect, and the former does not vary with the persons.

In galos, galo, &c., the verb root (probably ) has suffered its vowel to coalesce with the initial vowel of the auxiliary.

In bozum-alòs, boz-alo, &c., the auxiliary has destroyed the final syllables of the verb tense, excepting in the 1st pers. sing. and the 3rd pers. Plural.

In åsilòs, bilós, &c., the initial vowel of the auxiliary has itself suffered alteration from the pressure of the verb-root before it.

In the root as (of èsilos “I was”), and the root bi or be (of bilos ? bialòs, “I have become”), we have perhaps representatives of the universal Arian roots, bhu and as for the idea of “ being” or existence.”

In some verbs the terminations are òs, -, .

If again we subdivide the auxiliary tense alòs, &c., into its root al and its terminations -òs, -0, -0, ès, -et, and -e, it would appear that it was by the addition of these latter to the Present Future Tense, that the Present Tense was formed : E. g. Pr. Fut. Tense. Termn. Present Tense. Pr. Tut. Tense. Termn, Present Tense. bozum òs ... bozumus. bòzon

ès

bòzonàs. bozé.... bozao (ñ). bòzàt

et bòzat. bozéi 0 ... bozéu (ñ). | bòzen

é bòzena.

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TRANSITIVE VERBS are conjugated like intransitive ones. show traces of the quasi-Passive formation with the subject in the Instrumentative Case, such as we find in the Past Tenses in Hindustani and in

the Dàrd dialect of Dàh-Hanu (see above). As in the latter, the subject takes a special form in the Past tenses, the singular taking an affix or termination, generally -z, and the Plural -şa (cf. Dàh-Hanu -ya); but unlike in that dialect the verb agrees with its proper subject (in the Instrumentative case) and not with its object. In the other Tenses the subject takes the affix -sa as in the Dah-Hanu dialect. This in both dialects is now a simple variety of the nominative.

These facts I think corroborate the hypothesis that the Dàh-Hanu people formed an earlier migration than the Dràs Dàrds. For they retain most fully the quasi-Passive formation of the Past of Transitive Verbs, which we find again in the Indian dialects (from which they had less opportunity of borrowing than the Dràs people had). It was therefore perhaps an early Dàrd formation of which all but slight traces have been lost by the later Dàrds.

THE TRANSITIVE VERB " to strike."
Infinitive and Supine = kutino “ to strike" and " in order to strike."

- Icutio lcuni “in striking."
Imperative : kuté “ strike.”

Verbal Adjectives: kutiensto " striking,kutéta and kutetato “having struck."

Present.

Masc.

Fem. S. 1. moñ-sa kutémus

moosi-sa kutémis 2. tu-sa Icutàoñ

tu-sa Icutàñ (?) 3. ro-sa kuténo or kutéuñ -sa kuténi Pl. 1. -sa kutónàs

-sc Jactòas 2. tso-sa Icutiàt

tsà-sa kutiàt 3. -sa Icuténa (or kuty- -sa Icutéiñ (?)

English.
I am striking
thou art striking
he, she is striking
we are striking
ye are striking
they are striking

òra.

Present Future.

S. 1. mos-sa Icuten

2. tu-sa Icute? or Icuté

3. 10-sa Icuté Pl. 1. be-sa Icutòn

2. tso-sa Icutiat 3. -sa Icuten

I strike or shall strike

thou strikest on wilt strike -sa kutii he, she strikes or will strike

we strike ogu shall strike

ye strike or will strike a- sco cautemo they strike or will strike Compound Future.

moñ-sa Icutiòno hànis I am to strike
tu-sa Icutiòno hàni thou art to strike
-sa kutiòno hàni he, she is to strike

S. 1. moñ-sa Tcutiòno hans

2. tu-sa Icutiòno haoñ 3. ro-sa Icutiono haos

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S. 1. mi kutàs (in some verbs -òs). mi kutiès I struck
2. Iceta(-)

to Icuté

thou struckest 3. se-si Icutàu(-0)

re-si Kuti he, she struck Pl. 1. asso-za kutiès

asso-za Icutiéës we struck 2. tso-za kutiét

tsa-za kutièti 3. reno-za Icutié

rano-za kutieë they struck

ye struck

Perfect and Pluperfect.
S. 1. mi Icutàlòs

I have on had struck 2. to catalo(cute-aslòn) to cautal

mi Icutàlis

thou hast or hadst struck 3. se-si Icutàlo

le-si kutàli

he, she has or had struck Pl. 1. asso-zo Icutiàlis asso-za kutiàlyis (?) we have or had struck

2. tso-za kutiàlet tso-za kutiàliet (?) ye have or had struck 3. reno-za Icutidlé

rano-za kutiàli

they have or had struck

CONDITIONAL.
Present.

Past.
S. 1. moñ-sa Icuteto if I strike mos-sa kutàlòzto if I have or had

struck 2. tu-sa Icuteto if thou strikest tu-sa kutàlòto if thou hast or

hadst struck 3. ro-sa kutéito if he strike

ro-sa kutilto

if he has on had

struck Pl. 1. -sa kutunto if we strike -sa Tcutàlezto if we have or had

struck 2. tso-sa kutiàtto if

ye
strike tso-sa Tutàletto if ye have or had

struck 3. re-sa kuteñto if they strike -sa Tutilto if they have or had

struck

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