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Blyth, in 1846,* in treating of the hedgehogs collected by Hutton near the Sutlej, pointed out that the third specimen described by Hutton,† with some doubt, under the name of E. collaris, Gray, was apparently distinct from that species. Blyth was disposed to regard it as identical with a hedgehog in the Asiatic Society's Museum, the locality of which he then stated was unknown, but which he afterwards considered to have been received from the Nilgiris from Mr. Smoult and to be the specimen mentioned by Pearson as E. auritus. This latter specimen Blyth regarded as specifically identical with hedgehogs sent him from Southern India by Sir Walter Elliot, and with the hedgehog from Southern India in the British Museum grouped by Gray under E. collaris. He compared the skull of an adult specimen sent from Southern India by Sir Walter Elliot with the skull of Mr. Smoult's hedgehog and found them exactly to correspond, and these specimens he named E. micropus, the last mentioned being the type of the species. The skull, however, of Capt. Hutton's third specimen he goes on to remark " presents some differences; the general form is rather shorter and broader, it is more constricted between the orbits and the zygomæ are considerably more projecting; the small upper premolar anterior to the incisor teeth is less minute; and in the lower jaw, the second lateral pair of incisors from the front are much smaller, as indeed are also the next or last pair of the true incisors." From the description of this specimen which was obtained by Hutton§ in the neighbourhood of Shah Färíd on the left bank of the Sutlej, and from the details regarding the points wherein its skull differs from the skull of the Southern Indian hedgehog, I am disposed to consider, that Hutton's third specimen was an example of E. pictus. In 1853|| Blyth was still doubtful regarding the specific identity of Hutton's third specimen with E. micropus.

The next species, the cranial characters of which had been so well indicated by Blyth in 1846 and which entitle it to recognition, was described in 1872 by Stoliczka as E. pictus, but no reference was made to Blyth's observations, nor to the cranial and dental features of the animal. The characters selected by Dr. Stoliczka were exclusively external, and were derived from supposed differences existing between its spines and those of E. micropus, but after a very careful consideration of a large series of spines of both forms under the microscope, it appears to me that much importance cannot be attached to these structures as guides to species.

* Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, Vol. XV, p. 170; op. cit., Vol. V, 1836, p. 191.

top. cit., Vol. XIV, p. 351.

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Gray in his List of Mammalia* confounded this species with his E. collaris, E. grayi.

E. micropus appears to be confined to Southern India, where it occurs in the low lying country and not on the mountains. Col. Beddome informs me that no hedgehog is found on the Nilgiris. The limits, however, of its northern and western distribution have yet to be ascertained.

ERINACEUS PICTUS. Plate III.

? Erinaceus indicus, Royle, Ill. Ind. Zool. 1839, p. 6, not described. Erinaceus collaris? Hutton, Journ. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, Vol. XIV, 1845,

p. 351, 3rd specimen, partim ; Blyth, l. c. p. 352, foot note, id. op. cit., Vol. XXII, 1853, p. 582, partim.

Erinaceus micropus, Blyth, Journ. Asiatic Soc. Vol. XV, 1846, p. 170, partim.

Erinaceus (Hemiechinus) micropus, Fitzinger, Sitzungshte. der K. Akad.
Wissensch. Wien, Vol. LVI, Pt. 1, 1867, p. 875, partim.
Erinaceus (Hemiechinus) pictus, Stoliczka, Journal Asiatic Soc. Bengal,
Vol. XLI, 1872, p. 223.

Head (fig. d) the same as in E. micropus, but the ears (fig. g) somewhat larger, and the feet (c to f) narrower and not quite so long: the tail (fig. h) also is the same as in that species. The spines have the same characters as in E. micropus, but their tips are more broadly white and the brown bands below are not so dark. The result is that the latter are nearly obscured by the former. The remaining spines are pale yellowish, nearly white and not orange. There is no continuation of the brown band of the forehead lower than the angle of the mouth, except as a very rare circumstance, and in animals from the region of Central India, where the species probably meets the Southern E. micropus, but the colours in all other respects are alike. The dimensions of the species are these: ♂ 6" 70

$

f

ç

Length of head and body,

6" 00

5" 85

5" 90

tail,....

0" 68

0" 68

0" 55

0" 53

""

1′′ 33

1" 23

1" 03

1" 21

0" 86

0" 88

0" 70

0" 81

0" 88

0" 80

0" 88

0" 95

Height of ear,.
Breadth of ear,
Snout to eye,
Eye to ear,
Length of hind foot without claw,
Breadth across 5th toe,

0" 30

030

0′′.39 0"35
1" 10 1" 12 1"10
0" 35 0" 30 0" 25

0" 95

1" 10
0"35 0" 30

The skull (figs. a to c) is distinguished by its shortness and great zygomatic breadth, in which respects it differs from the skulls of all other Asia*List of Mamm. B. M., 1843, p. 81.

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4" 73

0′′ 58

0"85

0" 61

0"73

0"25

tic hedgehogs, and, as already stated, by its one-fanged simple second premolar placed out of the line of the teeth, and by the rather marked post-orbital contraction. The teeth are large and about the same size as in E. micropus, only the second premolar of the latter is excessively minute. The other characters wherein it differs from E. micropus, have been already indicated under that species.

As already remarked, this form was first described by Hutton as a probable variety of certain hedgehogs which he doubtfully regarded as E. collaris, which two of them appear to have been, but this third specimen, however, was undoubtedly E. pictus. E. micropus has diverged from the ordinary character of the genus more than any other Indian hedgehog, as is evinced by the absence of the malar, and in the excessively rudimentary character of its second premolar, and these modifications occurring in the most southern outlier of a Palearctic type are noteworthy.

A hedgehog obtained at Guna by Dr. A. Barclay would seem to indicate that the two species may possibly interbreed, as I have experienced some difficulty, judging by external characters only, in saying to which it should be properly referred. The coloration of its spines is more like that of E. pictus, than E. micropus, as the tips are broadly white, but, unlike any other example of E. pictus that has come under my observation, the brown band from the forehead is prolonged beyond the angle of the mouth across the throat. In all other respects, the coloration is alike to that of E. micropus. The ears also are somewhat larger than in E. pictus. The affinities, however, of this hedgehog as manifested by its teeth and the form of its skull are towards E. pictus.

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Besides occurring at Gúna, the most southern locality from which I have obtained it, I have received it also from Ulwar, from Major T. Cadell, V. C.; and the Indian Museum also came into the possession of a large number of specimens from Agra through Mr. A. E. Carlleyl. An example from Karachi has been received by exchange with the Municipal Museum, through the valued assistance of Mr. J. A. Murray. This latter specimen agrees with one in Mr. W. T. Blanford's possession from the same locality. He also possesses an adult male from Jeysulmere, the dimensions of which are given in the first column of the foregoing measurements.

It is probable that E. indicus was applied by Royle to the hedgehog which occurs about Delhi, and which appears to be this species.

ERINACEUS GRAYI. Plate IV.

Erinaceus collaris, Gray, Ill. Ind. Zool, Vol. I, 1872, Plate VIII, (not described): id. List. Mamm. B. M. 1843, p. 81, partim: Hutton, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, Vol. XIV, 1845, p. 351, (first two specimens only);

Blyth, op. cit., Vol. XV, 1846, p. 170: id. op. cit., Vol. XXII, 1853, p. 582, partim; Wagner, Schreber, Säugeth. Suppl., Vol. V, 1856, p. 590: Stoliczka, Journ. As. Soc., Vol. XLI, 1872, p. 225.

Erinaceus grayi, Bennett, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1832, p. 124; Gray List Mamm. B. M. 1843, p. 81: Wagner, Schreber, Säugeth., Suppl. Vol. II, 1841, p. 28; id. op. cit., Suppl. Vol. V, 1856, p. 590; Fitzinger, Sitsungsbte. der K. Akad. Wien, Vol. LVI, Pt. 1, 1867, p. 870, partim; Stoliczka, Journ. As. Soc. Beng, Vol. XLI, 1842, p. 225.

Erinaceus spatangus, Bennett, Proc. Zoo. Soc. 1832, p. 124, juv; Ogilby,
Royle's Ill. Ind. Himal. Botany, 1839, p. 62; Blyth, Journ. As. Soc.
Bengal, Vol. XV, 1846, p. 170; Gray, Mamm. B. M,. 1843, p. 82;
Wagner, Schreber, Säugeth., Suppl. Vol. II, 1841, p. 27; id. op. cit.
Suppl. Vol. V, 1856, p. 590; Stoliczka, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, Vol.
XLI, 1872, p. 225.
Hemiechinus grayi, Fitzinger, Sitzungsbte. der K. Akad. Wien, Vol. LVI, Pt.

1, 1867, p. 870.

Hemiechinus collaris, Fitzinger, Sitzungsbte. der K. Akad. Wien, Vol. LVI,
Pt, 1, 1867, p. 872.
Hemiechinus spatangus, Fitzinger, Sitzungsbte. der K. Akad. Wien, Vol. LVI,

Pt. 1, 1867, p. 873,

Facial portion of head pointed and rather long (fig. d). Ears (fig. g) large, full, long and somewhat pointed. Feet (figs. e and g) large, the fore feet rather broad and somewhat truncated, with moderately long toes and powerful claws. The proximal palmar pads forming a pair, and not very prominent. The hind feet with the toes turned inwards, the fingers moderately long and with strong claws. The proximal pad of the sole internal to the first toe, and which is strongly developed as a large mesial pad in E. jerdoni, is practically absent in this species, so little is it developed.* The tail (fig. h) is moderately long and shortly haired; no bare space on the vertex. The spines begin slightly behind the anterior margin of the ear, and they are generally about 0"75 long. The longitudinal grooves are numerous and shallow, but broader than the ridges which are 25 to 26 in number and studded with small tubercles. The spines are very narrowly tipped with black, and below this there is a very narrow yellowish band, succeeded by a broad dark-brown, almost black band, the remainder of each spine being yellow, except at its extreme base which is dusky. The broad dark-brown band below the yellow subapical band is so strongly developed, that when the animal is viewed from the side, with the spines directed outwards, it has a black appearance. There is, however, considerable variation in the intensity to which the yellow sub-apical band is developed, and some animals are

* The artist has not well represented this feature on the plate.

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therefore much lighter coloured than others, as the brown band succeeding the latter is also much paler in some individuals than in others.

This species, besides the almost entire absence of the proximal mesial pad of the sole, is at once distinguished by the complete absence of the bare space that occurs in E. pictus, and E. micropus, among the spines of the vertex. From the two last named species which have no large proximal pad on the sole, it is recognised by its large feet, well developed toes, powerful claws, and by the turning in of the hind feet, as well as by its different coloration. There is a considerable naked space over the sacrum, and on the dorsum of the tail as in other species. The snout is seminude, being sparsely covered with very minute hairs. Behind the whiskers, the hairs become much more numerous and longer, and the area below the eye, and the forehead are well clad. The greater part of the front of the ear is nude, but there is a sprinkling of short white hairs internal to and along its margins. The chin and below the lower lips are almost naked, and, immediately behind the chin, the hairs are few. The under parts are well clad, but not densely so, and the limbs are thinly clad, more especially the feet on which the hairs are very few and short. The tail also is only sparsely clothed.

The general colour of the animal is blackish-brown or brown, the spinous portion of the body being darkest; but the colour is variable owing to the reasons already mentioned.

The front of the face from the nose backwards to the spines, the limbs and all the under parts with the exception of the chin and a line from it upwards to the ear which are white, are generally dark-brown or fuliginousbrown, blackish on the face, on which there is occasionally a considerable intermixture of white hairs. The hairs which clothe the ears, and a tuft of hairs at the base of the anterior margin of the ears, are white. The white on the chin is more prolonged upwards to the ears in some specimens than in others, giving rise to a kind of white collar which is much exaggerated in the figure of E. collaris. The claws are horny yellow.

The following are the measurements of this species :

ð

F

6" 85

0'96

1" 45

0" 97

1′′ 00

Length of body and head,

""

of tail,
Height of ear,
Breadth of ear,

Snout to eye,
Eye to ear,

Length of hind foot without claw,
Breadth of hind foot,

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6′′ 70

1′′ 30

1" 52

0"97

0′′ 49

0'52

0'49

1'45

1'45

0" 49 0" 45

X+

6" 70

1′′ 02

1′′ 38

1" 00

0′′ 62

062

1/50

0"38

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