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The skull of this species (figs. a to b) is distinguished from that of E. pictus, and the skull of E. micropus, by its large second premolar with three fangs, and from the other two species by its great zygomatic breadth. In this latter respect, it resembles E. pictus, but the skull has a considerably longer muzzle than in that species, and, as a whole, is not so broad and round. It is considerably broader than E. blanfordi, with more marked post-orbital contraction, and from E. jerdoni it is still more markedly separated by its relatively much greater breadth across the zygomatic, and more especially across the base of the muzzle, at the third premolar. The skull is undoubtedly most nearly allied to that of E. blanfordi, to which it presents a very close resemblance when the adolescent skull is compared with the adolescent skull of the type of that species. But the latter is narrower across the zygomæ, and has less post-orbital contraction, as already stated. It is further separated from the skull of E. jerdoni by its larger teeth, and by the different form of the canine. This tooth in E. blanfordi, as well as in this species, is less triangular and more sharply pointed than in E. jerdoni, E. niger, E. pictus, and E. micropus, and in this respect differs more in appearance from the first premolar than it does in these last-named species. All of these species are characterized by the presence of two sharp cusps to the canine section of the third premolar, while in E. niger described by Blanford, the posterior of these two cusps is entirely absent and its last molar presents only one eminence, while in all the others this tooth has two cusps the inner of which is always the larger. The figure in the Illustrations of Indian Zoology was copied from one of General Hardwicke's drawings, and on the plate it is stated that the hedgehog was a species found in the Doab. There are many tracts of country in North-Western India named Doab, but General Hardwicke appears from his paper on Mus giganteus,* in using the term Doab, to have had in view the country lying between the Jumna and Ganges, in which the military Station of Fatehgarh is situated, and where he appears to have been stationed. There he had drawings made of the species of hedgehog which is there. common, also of Mus giganteus, and of M. (Nesokia) hardwickii Arvicola indica, Gray.
I am indebted to the late Mr. Andrew Anderson for many living examples of the hedgehog that occurs about Fatehgarh, and which appears to me to agree with the figure of E. collaris, from the Doab. As in the figure, the chin of these hedgehogs was more or less white, and, in some, the white extended up towards the ear as a kind of collar which, however, is exaggerated in the drawing of E. colluris, in which the contrast between the colours is too marked, and the animal altogether represented too dark. Notwithstand* Trans. Journ. Linn. Soc. Vol. VII, 1804, p. 308.
ing, I think there can be but little doubt, that the Fatehgarh hedgehog which is very common in the district is the E. collaris, Gray.
The specimens from Madras in the British Museum referred to this species are, as already mentioned, examples of E. micropus, Blyth.
This species has been also obtained at Ajmír in Rájpútána by Mr. Blanford, and if I am correct in referring to it Hutton's two specimens, it extends west to the Sutlej. There Hutton obtained it in separate holes, "beneath a thorny bush called Jhund' in the desert tracts of shifting sand between Sundah Badairah and Hasilpoor," on the left bank of the Sutlej, and apparently in close proximity to Erinaceus pictus.
ERINACEUS BLANFORDI, n. s., Plate V.
Muzzle rather short (fig. d) and not much pointed; ears moderately large (fig. g), but broader than long and rounded at the tips, which are not accuminate as in E. grayi. The length of the anterior margin is equivalent to the breadth of the ear at its base. The feet (figs. e and f) are large and the hind foot resembles that of E. grayi, with the first toe well developed and there is the absence of any well developed median pad. The feet are also larger and broader than in E. jerdoni, and the first toe is more largely developed as in E. grayi. The claws are long and curved, especially those of the fore foot. The tail (fig. h) is short. The spines meet in a point on the forehead and do not reach quite so far forwards as the base of the upper border of the ear, and there is no bare patch in the midst of them, on the vertex. They are moderately long with 24 to 28 concentric ridges and furrows, the former finely tubercular. The general colour of the spiny portion of the animal is deep black, when the spines are looked at directly on end and when they are at rest, but when raised or seen sideways, the mesial yellow band becomes visible. The apex of each spine is broadly tipped with deep black, and this is succeeded by a very broad yellow mesial band, the base of each spine being dusky brown. The fur generally is deep brown and moderately long and soft. A few white hairs occur A few white hairs occur on the chin, and there is a tuft of white hairs at the anterior angle of the ear, and the latter anteriorly and posteriorly is sparsely covered with white hairs.
The skin of the back of the ear is blackish, also the margins of the ears anteriorly, but the centre of the ear is white. The claws are yellowish. Measurements of E. blanfordi.
The skull (figs. a to c) of this species is distinguished from that of E. grayi, by its much less zygomatic breadth and by the less protuberant character of the supra post-orbital region. The teeth in both these species have much the same general characters. It is undoubtedly very closely allied to E. grayi, which it resembles in the absence of a bare area over the vertex, in its large feet with its hind toes somewhat turned inwards, and strong and long claws, and in the almost complete absence of a mesial pad on the hind foot, but it differs from it externally in its shorter muzzle, much shorter and more rounded ears, and in its darker coloration, and smaller size.
This species is known only from one specimen procured by Mr. W. T. Blanford at Rohri in Sind, where it is apparently associated with E. jerdoni, and I have named the species after its discoverer.
ERINACEUS JERDONI, n. s., Plate V4.
Muzzle moderately long and pointed. Ears large, rounded at the tips and broad at the base. Feet large, more especially the fore feet which are broad and powerful, with strong claws. The hind feet well developed, but proportionally not so large as the fore feet. A large well developed pad on the under aspect of the hind foot. Claws strong. The tail moderately long. The spines begin on a line with the anterior margins of the ear, divided on the vertex by a large nude area as in E. micropus and E. pictus. The spines are not very thick and they are marked generally with 19 grooves and 19 ridges, the latter exceeding the breadth of the former and being very sharp, with the tubercles passing down on their sides, almost into the hollow of the furrow. The animal is black when the spines lie flat, but when they are partially erected, the white bands show, and a variegated appearance is produced. In the adult with the spines 2′′∙15 in length, there are two white and three dark bauds. The apical band is broad and deep shining black, and it is succeeded by a white band nearly of the same breadth, which is followed by a brown band with a white band below it, and then a dusky basal band. These are the characters of two females from Karachi, but in the younger of the two, the spines are 0"-97 in length and the basal band is hardly developed. In an adolescent male from Rájanpur, which I refer to this species, there is generally only one white central band to each spine, the apical and basal bands being black. In a few, however, measuring 0"-75 in length, there are two white and three apical bands as in the type, and it is probable that in this adolescent male as it reached maturity and its spines grew, the coloration of the
type would be attained. In a still younger female from Rohri, Sind, and for the privilege of examining which I am indebted to Mr. W. T. Blanford, the spines are fine and rather soft, and the majority of them do not exceed 0.80, but yet they have only one white band prominently developed, although the basal white band is more or less indicated.
The hair generally is dusky brown, with an intermixture of grey hairs. on the head and on the chin and throat, the fur behind the latter area and on the sides of the neck being paler brown than on the limbs and on the sides. A patch of white hairs occurs at the base of the anterior angle of the ear, and the inner surface of the ear is clad with short white hairs and the apical third of the back of the organ with similar hairs. The moustaches are brown and reach behind the ear. The claws are yellow.
Measurements of E. jerdoni.
The skull of the female in its general characters is allied to the skull of E. macracanthus, Blanford, but is considerably less, with smaller teeth, the upper dental line of the latter measuring 1"03 to 0" 97 in this species, which is a considerable difference in such small skulls. The skull also of E. macracanthus is characterised by a considerable concavity on the mesial line in the fronto-parietal area, which does not exist in this species. The skull has also a very strong resemblance to the skull of E. niger, but it is a relatively broader skull than the latter, which has an attenuated facial region, less post-orbital breadth and less temporal contraction, a smaller brain case, and only one internal cusp developed on the third premolar. It is distinguished from the skull of E. blanfordi by its more slightly elongated character, by its greater post-orbital breadth and swelling, by its relatively longer and less expanded zygomatic arch, more produced muzzle and by its teeth. It is markedly distinct from the short but especially broad skull of E. grayi, and it has much smaller teeth than that species.
The external features which appear to me to entitle this form to recognition as a species distinct from E. blanfordi, are the very prominent character of the mesial pad on the hind foot, its larger ears and the presence of a large nude area on the vertex, as in E. micropus and E. pictus, this latter character along with those already indicated separating it from E. grayi.