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1. 171. birre, violence, fierceness: for the different meanings of birre see Glossary: they are still used. See note 1. 1902.

1. 172. bude wirke, must work: bude, a common word still, has always the sense of compulsion or necessity, behoved: so also bus


behoves, in l. 5168, 5643, 11722, 13549.

1. 173. Ayre, go, wend: occurs in Morte Arthure, and often in this work: 'I'll ayre awa hame', or 'I'll airt awa hame', is still a common form of speech. ayre in l. 175 is a different word, and signifies to ear, to plough.

1. 174. with striffe or with stroke, by main force or by blows.

1. 175. on ardagh wise, in ploughman fashion.

1. 179. ferlyfull, wonderful, marvellous, as in The Bruce,
"With sa ferlyfull a mycht

Off men off armys and archeris."

1. 184. with-outen payne other, not to mention some others, or, and others besides.

1. 185. ferke it away, bear it away: for various meanings of ferke, see Glossary.

1. 194. ay lastand, everlasting.

1. 196. sleght, craft. sletyng of wordes, cunning use of words, cajolery (see note l. 1251): slete = sleith is still used.

1. 198. He were seker, he would be certain. for sight of him euer, never to see him again: for various meanings of siker, see Glossary.

1. 207. daintes ynogh, dainties in plenty, or, abundance of dainties: the phrase occurs in Morte Arthure, 1. 199, and dainty, or, daintith, is still used. However, dainty and daintith also mean regard, liking, relish, as in 1. 463 of this work, and in Wyntoun, IX. 1. 54: dainty also means worthy, good-looking, lovely, as in Burns's song, 'Dainty Davie.' 1. 216. & pu furse holdyn, and thou (shalt be) esteemed a conqueror : furse, fierce, has here the sense of overbearing, irresistible.

1. 223. me set, suit me, become me: set is so used in The Bruce (Bk 1, 1. 394), in Henryson (Bannatyne Poems, p. 104); and in 'The Gentle Shepherd,' Madge says of Bauldy,

"It sets him weel, wi' vile unscrapit tongue,

To cast up whether I be auld or young!"

1. 225. flamond of gold, gleaming with gold: flamond so used by Barbour, 8. 196.

1. 232. best wise, best style, finest display: a common phrase still. Some say it is a corruption of the old law term 'best advise' (see Scots Acts): the French phrase 'at point devise,' with the utmost exactness, countenances the explanation: best wise occurs in Bruce, Bk 8, 1. 72, and Bk 10, 1. 563.1

1. 248. with a sad wille, with a serious intention: for the various meanings and uses of sad, see Glossary.

1 When Barbour's Bruce, and Blind Harry's Wallace are quoted, reference is made to Jamieson's edition.

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1. 258. He put noght vnpossible Pelleus wordes, he deemed the promises of Pelias not impossible.

1. 264. He ertid, he shaped his course, directed, hastened. erte is still used in Scotland: for its different meanings in this work, see Glossary.

1. 270. pe shyre waghes, the wild waves, the open sea: waghes occurs in 1. 5585 as waches, with the sense of waters, soundings.

1. 273. abill of his crafte, skilful in his work: able is a common term to express one's superiority in his work or profession, as, an able workman, an able minister.

1. 278. foremast, greatest: is used to express the highest position of place, power, ability, or value.


1. 281. althing, everything: see note, 1. 133. onestly, completely, thoroughly onestly has also the meaning decently, respectably, as in l. 1600; also a meaning implying a combination of both complete or thorough and decent or respectable; and this is the meaning in that phrase of Burns, "honest men and bonnie lasses."

1. 293. as I wene, as I wot, as I understand.

1. 298. wo pat trawe lyst, whoever believes (the story) may. 1. 299. helle yates, the gates of hell.

1. 300. coght, caught: often, caght: both forms still in use.

1. 301. the close of pat curset In, the entrance of that cursed abode : a close is a narrow passage to a castle or stronghold, as in ll. 11173 and 12982, or, simply, an entrance, or gate, as here: also, the enclosure behind a house. Every one who has visited Edinburgh will remember the closes and entries of the High Street and Canongate; for In see note, 1. 2156.

1. 302. So dang he þat dog, he so beat that dog: dang is so used by Wyntoun, Barbour, Blind Harry, and indeed all the Scottish poets, and is still used. For the various forms and meanings of the word, which occur in this work, see Glossary, Ding, Dyng, Dang. dynt of his wappon, a stock phrase in the Morte Arthure and in this work, which becomes dyntes of hondes, dyntes of swerdes, by way of variety.

1. 303. warlag, monster: so pronounced, and with the same meaning still it is so used by Dunbar, and Lindsay as warlo, which is another pronunciation. wan atter black venom, black gore, filthy


blood: wan is so used by Blind Harry and Douglas. atter may be here rendered piss. For other meanings of atter, see Glossary: in 1. 2286 it is a verb, to embitter, to cause sorrow or suffering.

1. 315. wan, conquered: occurs frequently in this work, and is still at his wille aght, held it in subjection to himself = ruled it as

in use.

he pleased so Wyntoun, VIII. 2. 9,

"Of Kyngis þat aucht þat Reawté,
And mast had rycht þare kyng to be."

aght still implies possession and right of disposal.

1. 321. buernes, people, subjects.

1. 322. pals, so in l. 1378, 5610,


peles (pronounced peel and


pail), forts, towers, holds, or strongholds: so used by Barbour and Wyntoun in Lancashire such a building is called a pile, as the Pile of Fouldery. Lesly, in his account of the Scottish Borderers, says, they care little about their houses or cottages, but "construct for themselves stronger towers of a pyramidal form which they call Pailes," which cannot be so easily destroyed.

1. 329. abasshet, bowed down, hanging: in 11. 2517, 7962, it is used in the sense of abashed, confounded.


1. 330. shotes, clumps, patches: still used in the same sense, as a shot of ground." In 1. 3300 it occurs, meaning gushes, streams, 'spaits.' 1. 332. to wale, of various kinds: see note, 1. 8; and compare 1. 373, and Morte Arthure, 1. 181, "wylde to wale."


1. 342. swonghe or swoughe sough (all these forms are still used), gushing, purling, the sound of flowing water: sough is applied to express the rustling of the wind, swough or swongh, the lapping or flowing of the water among stones; thus, "The win' was soughin thro' the trees; ""the burn was swoughin or swonghin along." sweppit, lapped, gushed; swep is dimin. of swap (see Gloss.), as tip is of tap or top.

1. 351. Steppit up to a streite; a well marked Scotticism, and still very common; stepping up and stepping doun, express going to and from a place. streght on his gate, may be either, (that was) straight before them, or, (leading) direct to his destination: both meanings are still in every-day use.

1. 353. wilfulde, eager: occurs in II. 725, 2872.

1. 357. yepe, eager, impulsive: yepe and yape are still used; it occurs in 'Christ's Kirk on the Green,'

"A yap young man that stood him neist

Soon bent his bow in ire," &c.

zynerus, also zenerus, should be 3yuerus, zeuerus (see Gloss., derivatives of yener, misprint for yeuer, A.S. gífer, greedy, rapacious) impetuous, generous, kindly: this line represents one of the stock terms of our author when speaking of a favourite knight: it occurs frequently, sometimes word for word, sometimes with a little variation. This habit of repeating himself forms one of the strong proofs of the identity of authorship of the Morte Arthure and this Troy Book.

1. 362. bowet, wended, marched, went. -the brode yate, the chief gate or entrance: so called still. -or pai bide wold, before they would stop or stay. The whole line = they went direct to the main en



1. 364. silet, swept, passed, as in 1. 1973: in 11. 1307, 2680, sile to flow both meanings are used in Morte Arthure, the first, in l. 1297; and the second in 1. 3794, in almost the same words,


"And thane syghande he said, with sylande terys."

1. 367. haspyng in armys, clasping in arms, embracing each other: hasp occurs also as a s. (see Gloss.): both forms are still common, as also the meaning used in l. 3899,—a hank, a fold.

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1. 369. Gaid, went, passed: as in Burns's song, 'Tibbie, I hae

seen the Day,'

"Yestreen I met you on the moor:

Ye spak na, but gaed by like stour."

1. 383. Be pan, by that time: so in Wallace, 5. 125,—

"Sternys, be than, began for till apper."

and in Douglas's Virgil, p. 324, 1. 18, and still used.

1. 386. Walid wine, choice wines, the best of wines. —to wete, for the asking wete is used in the same sense in Wallace, 5. 346.

1. 392. sought into sale, entered the room in 1. 6644, sought


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1. 394. etlit, intended, chosen, or designed as the one to succeed: the word is so used in Douglas's Virgil, p. 13, l. 34.

1. 399. the clene artis, as opposed to the black arts; the former implied education and ability, and claimed respect; while the latter implied fellowship with the devil, and inspired dread.

1. 406. in a hond while, in a short time, in an instant: the phrase occurs frequently in this work.

1. 408. Merke, dark, or darkness: still used in both senses in 1. 3195 it is a s., and in 1. 4286 a vb.

1. 414. yepely, quickly, cleverly see note, 1. 357, also Glossary. yarke into Elde, change into old (men), or, put into old (age): yark, yerk, to do anything cleverly or quickly, as to toss, to upset, to strike, to tie, &c. still in use.

1. 425. flitton, changed, altered, varied: liter. removed; in this sense flit is still used.

1. 439. wit, judgment; so in 1. 443.

1. 448. no bote, no good, no advantage, useless: bote is used as a vb. in l. 3391.

1. 453. Ene (eyes); this is one mark of the author's origin. trendull, a hoop, a wheel: so in Burns's Inventory,

"Ae auld wheelbarrow, mair for token,

Ae leg an' baith the trams are broken;

I made a poker o' the spindle,

An' my auld mither brunt the trindle."

1. 462. radly, severely, intensely: another form of roidly, fiercely: see 1. 912, and Gloss. Roid, Roidly.

1. 464. hir talent was taken, her inclination was taken away or gone. 1. 466. full, satisfied; so used still.

1. 475. hardy, bold, brave: occurs often in The Bruce, and in Wallace.

1. 478. derne hert, inmost heart, secret thoughts: derne is still used as a vb. in this sense, as in "The Witch of Fife,'

"We splashit the floode, and we dernit the woode,

And we left the shoure behynde."

1. 481. Shentyng, shrinking: occurs also as shontyng, shuntyng; see Glossary.

1. 482. pere worship to saue, to save their good name: worship occurs often in this work, and generally in the sense of fame, renown, as in 1. 655, &c.

1. 483. burdys, young ladies: so in Burns's 'Tam o' Shanter,' and a stock word in old ballads.

1. 486. burdes, tables; liter. boards, pronounced burds, or, bairds. 1. 493. Wox (pret. of wax), grew, became: so in The Bruce, 4. 21, and 7. 487.

1.494. as the lowe hote, as hot as fire: lowe, flame, fire, is still in use both as a s. and as a vb.


1. 495. souet, pierced, vibrated, dirled: souet to the hert is a common expression still in 1. 5284 the form soune occurs: both forms are used. 1. 527. Voidis me noght of vitius, shun or despise me not as vicious. vilaus of tunge, of vile or foul tongue: vilaus occurs in Wyntoun, VII. 8. 242.

1.543. zenernes, kind-heartedness = generosity: see note on 1. 357. 3omers, cries, pleads: 30mer and zamer are still used, but generally to express the cry or plaint of a child: for various meanings see Gloss.

1. 545. plite, position, circumstances, state: still used to express circumstances of difficulty, danger, or distress: if ze putte me in pis plytte, occurs in Morte Arthure, 1. 683. your purpos to wyn, your end to accomplish.

1. 561. wochis, watches, guards, hence, dangers, difficulties: for examples, see Gloss.

1. 570. bydis pere bir, faces their fury, attempts to resist their force : for various meanings of byde, see Gloss.; here, it is to withstand, as in the old Scotch Song,

"Hap an' row, hap an' row,

Hap an' row the feetie o't;

It is a wee bit wearie thing,

I downa bide the greetie o't."

1. 571. derfe and felle are favourite words in the Morte Arthure and this Troy Book; so are the phrases derfe dedes, derfe dynttes, derfe wepon; while, the derfe Danamarkes of Morte Art., 1. 3610, is matched in 1. 8364 of this work by the derfe Trojans; and, Derfe dynttys they dalte (Mort. Arth., 1. 3749), by, Derf dynttes pai delt, in 1. 10218 of this work. So with the word felle, and the phrases, felle dedes, felle dynttes, felle wepon, felle sword, felle was the fight.

Both words are still used in the same senses as then, and in some districts the word fell is used to express exceedingly good or bad, great or small, fierce or gentle, &c. &c.

1. 577 = for assuredly the expedition can have but one end,—

your death.

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1. 584-5. Or it were knowen, rather than that it were known: or so occurs in Golag. & Gaw., 1. 1110, and is still so used. shuld fle, could do such a thing as flee, or could be so base as flee, or had to flee this

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