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Cf. Fr. pas.

1. 1670. pight full of perrieris, thickly set or studded with precious stones. Douglas, Virgil, p. 318, 1. 24.

1. 1671. of Eyntayill fyn, of fine drapery: in this sense entayle is used by Piers Plowman, Crede, 1. 398 (Wright's ed.), and by Douglas in the Palice of Honour, pt 1, 39 ver.

1. 1672. toiher hede, the other end, i. e. opposite the cheffe.
1. 1677. pase, steps : note the sing. form.
1. 1680. Insert [a] between of and god.

1. 1691. as yt most nede, as it could not fail to do: this phrase is still used.

1. 1696. See note, 1. 1374.
1. 1698. A remorec of maters, a deep regret concerning events.

pat hym mys lyket, that caused him to despise himself, or, that he greatly disliked : mislike, which is still used in the West of Scotland, has both these meanings, as in the phrase," it mislikes me sair," means either, it sorely humbles me,' or, 'it greatly displeases me.' For the first sense, see Jamieson's Dict. Suppl.

1. 1704. as hom wele aght, as well they ought, or, as it well became them : the expression is still common.

1. 1707. was oute, was away: there is another meaning of oute which occurs in l. 2175, in existence, alive : both are still common.

1. 1717. lefe, should be lese, less, of lower standing in rank, as in 1. 2025.

1. 1720. gremy, perhaps should be gremp: see note, 1. 3491.

11. 1721-2. me and myne, myself and those related to me. yours, yourself and your relations : so in The Bruce, 6. 690. thaim & tharis : these are still very common expressions. zomeryng, sorrow, cause of mourning: from A.S. geomor, sad, sorrowful ; geomrung, a lamentation, which it also means in this work : see Gloss.

1. 1726. sik, should be sib, by relation, nearly related, which is in

yow and

common use.

1. 1732. renttes, lands or properties that yield rent: it occurs also in the sense of rental, income from property : both senses are used in the Acts of Parls. of Scotland, and are still common.

1. 1736. Thes redurse to riche, to wreak or right those acts of violence : redur, from O.Fr. roideur, and that from roide, fierce, violent, is used by Douglas in his Virgil, p. 376, 1. 54, and occurs again and again in this work.

1. 1750. our mys wreke, wreak or avenge our wrong: mys, froin Goth. missa, error, occurs in Wallace, Bk 4, II. 746, 762 ; and in Douglas's Virgil, p. 11, 1. 25.

1. 1751. feghters, warriors : occurs in Wallace, Bk 1, 1. 324, and Bk 11, 1. 866, in this sense ; but here it evidently means quarrelsome persons or bullies, those who love fighting and settle their quarrels by it. The meaning of the line (which is a form of a well-known proverb), then, is, “but our fate may be that of bullies,-a fell chaunse' (a terrible defeat).” The proverb referred to is, Feghters are sure

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to meet wi' their match :" when the best of it is a good thrashing,
and defeat is disgrace.

1. 1752. And siker were, and it would be surer, i.e. safer, better : a
common expression still.

11. 1757-8. But it likis you, but if it be in keeping with your will, or, but if it please you better: this contracted form is still in use. al a lite wordys, in a few words, or, without further ado. thus gate to begyn, to begin on this wise. ferre, farther.

1. 1763. To quit claym all querels, to forget all our quarrels : to quit claym is to renounce claim. queme, close, loving, good: see Gloss. and note, 1. 1809.

1. 1775. willè perlo, willing, hearty besides : willè occurs again in 1. 7713.

1. 1778. This line is almost as in Piers Plow., 2. 154. (Clarendon Press Series.)

1. 1790. tome, time = leisure : is so used in Piers Plowman, and is still common.

1. 1802. for eld, for generations, or ages: so used by Wyntoun, Bk 2, prol. I. 5, and Bk 2. 9. 75.

1. 1805. redurs : see note, 1. 1736.

1. 1809. to qweme quit of all other, in order to become quits in all other things, or that you may be freed from all the other offences.

1. 1818. hethyng, scorn : occurs in Mort. Arth., 1. 1813 : Wallace,
Bk 5, 1. 739 : Douglas's Virgil, p. 118, 1. 48.

1. 1822. untomly, not leisurely, hurriedly, without delay.
1. 1829. that tyme, at that time : a very common plırase in Scotland.

1. 1831. arghly, timidly, with reluctance: his previous experience
certainly gave him good cause.

1. 1837. umbly, should be tumbly, leisurely, calmly: for tomely; and is another indication of dictation.

1. 1811. as be lyne olde, a descendant of her ancient monarchs, or, sprupg from her ancient kings.

1. 1819. to more pen yourselfe, to a greater than yourself.

1. 1851. mase, make : prop. makes ; but here it is 2nd pl., and in 1. 1402 it is 2nd sing. : but it was used by Scottish writers with each of the pers. prons, and in both numbers; and vulgarly it is so used still.

1. 1855. mart, marred, injured, degraded : or it may be for marrowed mated, matched with yourself: the word is still used in both meanings.

1. 1860. a clene yre, a perfect rage : clene is similarly employed still, as in the man 's clean wud.'

1. 1863. Be, sir, should be Ben, sher, being, sir.

1. 1865. ne acoyntaunse of my cors has, nor has any personal know-
ledge of me, nor has ever seen me.

1. 1889. Compare this line with Mort. Arth., 11. 1465-6.
1. 1894. lofe should be lose.


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1. 1900. Lut not the lede, bowed not to the man, made no obeisance to the fellow : lut, from A.S. hlútan, to bow.

1. 1902. Hade bir at his bake, bad a strong favourable wind : this phrase is very common in Scotland, and is very expressive. Bir is used in various senses (see Gloss.), all more or less connected with rapid motion, what causes it, or what it produces: as in, the boat birred thro’ the water;' 'it gaed thro’ wi' a birr;' 'gie your stroke birr;' he's a man of some birr;' the arrow birs thro’ the air, and wi' a loud birr, gied him a birr on the breast.' Sometimes it becomes 'birle,' as ' a birr on the breast, or, a birle on the breast,' as in 11. 1224, 9061. Bir is said to be derived from A.S. béran, to bear, to produce, to carry, to excel ; and I have set it so in the Gloss., but its applications by the old Scottishi writers, in this work, and at the present time, connect it more closely with Isl. byre, a strong wind, a tempest, and Su. Goth. boer, the wind, or with Isl. fioer, life, vigour. See Jamieson's Dict, and Suppl. under Beir, Bir.

1. 1919. onryng should be orryng, an error for ouryng, a form of ournyng, shrinking, wincing: prob. from A.S. or-wen, hopeless. In the West of Scotland ourne is still used meaning to hang back, to shrink from, to be dowie and sad; and oorie meaning cold, chilly, shivering, shrinking: see Burns's “Winter Night,' stan. 3., For other meanings of ournyng, see 11. 2203, 2540, 4767, 12711, and Gross.

1. 1920. at sad wordes, in plain words: at is so used in l. 1757.

1. 1928. vs qwemes noght, in no way entice us, do not at all concern us : qweme, from A.S. cweman, to please, to delight, has various meanings in this work : see Gloss.

1. 1939. for and pou do, for if you do : and is often used so throughout this work.

1. 1945. Braid vp a brode saile, hoisted a broad sail: compare various meanings of braid given in Gloss.

1. 1952. mekyt should be mefyt.

1. 1961. vnsell, lit. misfortune, mischance; but here implies that which caused the misfortune, viz. silliness, stupidity.

1. 1976. with austerne wordes, on account of (those) angry words : austerne, stern, severe, from L. austerus, or A.S. styrn, stern. plırase occurs in Mort. Arth., 1. 306.

11. 1977-8. fere should be ferd; and next line, Lesl the tyrand in his tene, hade turnyt hym to sle.'

1. 1983. The passage which begins here is a fine specimen of our poet's power. Scenes of battle and tempest are his delight, especially the latter; and again and again he seizes on what in the original is a mere statement or ontline, as in this case, and elaborates a splendid

Observe too on every such occasion the marked change in the language and measure : he seems to adopt the language of an earlier period that he might have fuller scope and freer measure : indicating that the trammels of translation were irksome, and that the style was assumed for the occasion. In short, when working at the story le



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employed the language of books and the style of a favourite author;
and when he had a sketch to fill in, he laid aside the Dictionary and
the author, and adopted the speech and style of the educated higher
classes. For examples of what is here alluded to, compare the ordinary
story with passages headed, The Poete, A Prouerbe, A Tempest on
þe See, &c.

on þe torres hegh, on the high sea : lit. on þe high hills: torres, pl.
of tor, a hill; no doubt from its towering.

1. 1981. a rak, a thick mist : in Norfolk called a roke. The word
occurs in Douglas's Virgil both as rak and roik, —p. 203, 1. 26; p. 74,
1. 12; p. 432, 1. 19. See rug, 1. 9652.

1. 1986. routond, roaring, rushing, bellowing.
1. 1988. a leuenyng light, a gleaming or flashing light :-

-as a low
fyre, like that of a blazing fire, or, as of a flaming fire.

t. 1993. þat no lond hade, that was not on the land, or, that was on the sea.

1. 1995. clent hille, rocky or precipitous hill: clint and clinty are still used in the Lothians, and in the same sense : clinty clewes occurs in Doug. Virg., p. 200, 1. 15; and clinty craigs, in Ramsay's Poems.

1. 1996. dump, rush down, sink : dump in þe depe occurs again in l. 13289; and damp into helle, in l. 10713: dump is still so used in Scotland.

1. 2002. to seke, to go on pilgrimage to.

1. 2003. þrappit, contended, strove, battled: from A.S. þreapian. Compare l. 8362 with 1. 2152.

1. 2026. gayne-come, return, 'back-come.'

1. 2031. rekont by row, reckoned (recounted) one by one, or, related seriatim.

1. 2036. fere, fear, or cause to be afraid.

1. 2016. uackons op werre, war arises, or war bursts forth : waknys wer occurs in Wallace, Bk 7, 1. 185.

1. 2061. wrirlit, from A.S. urixlan, to change ; but here evidently to cause to change, to overbear, to master.

1. 2064. to myn on, to recall and dwell on, to brood over: thie phrase is still common. See note, 1. 30.

1. 2071. to hit, to come true, to be verified: hit is still used in this sense in Scotland: for other meanings, see Gloss. tas, takes : of the same forın as mase, gais.

11. 2080-1. þar not, needs not, has no cause : from the A.S. þearf, need, cause. lip, slip, stumble, fall: still used in the East of Scotland.

1. 2086. dungen to dethe, hurried to death, worried to death, killed : a common phrase still, and with many applications : see 1. 2135.

1. 2089. ges matir, givest cause : in common use still. Note the various applications of matir in this work; the word is so used throughout the Lowlands of Scotland. mony day after, for many a year to come : note the absence of the prepos. here, and often through

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out the work : the idiom is very common still : see in 1. 2340, mony day past.

1. 2126. wintors, should be winteris.

1. 2128. no faute, no want, no lack, or, lack of nothing: faute also means fault, offence, as in l. 4850. 1. 2140. Similarly in Mort. Arth., 1. 298,

“Of this grett velany I salle be vengede ones.” 1. 2156. þere ynnes, their homes: generally implies temporary place of abode ; but often used for dwelling, place of abode.

1. 2159. wan, begat : for other meanings, see Gloss.

1. 2178. the slaght, the slaughter : occurs again and again : is slagh in l. 13609. The word is still used.

1. 2203. ournand, sinking, drooping : see note, 1. 1919.

1. 2217. any erdyng in erthe, any inhabitant of the carth, any one on earth. euenyng to us, equal to us (in rank), or, really our match,as in the common expression, 'dinna strike the laddie ; he's no an evenin' to you :' see euyn, equal, just, fair, in 1. 2287.

1. 2219. þat the mysse tholis, that endures the insult, or to whom the indignity is done.

11. 2239-40. our gate, our conduct or plans. ne no torfer betyde : compare Mort. Arth., 1. 356, Hym salle torfere betyde;' and compare the line with Mort. Arth., 1. 1956, 'to tene and torfer for ever.'

1. 2247. the fer end, the conclusion : see note, 1. 95; and compare with the last end' of l. 2254. We still speak of the fore end, or beginning; the far end,' or conclusion ; and the last end,' or result, outcome, the after vards

1. 2261. to wisshe you with wit : see note, 1. 4.

1. 2286. Or all so myght, &c. = or to embitter for ever all who might so venture for her.

1. 2293. The same idea in almost the same words in M. A., I. 1693.

1. 2341. leut, left, or lent, dwelling, abiding, -as in 1. 13857.
1. 2354. hym one, all alone, by himself: like Scottish his lane.'
1. 2359. I wilt, I wandered : see note, 1. 2369.

1. 2363. I tynt hym belyue, I by-and-bye lost him, or, I soon lost him : the expression is still used.

1. 2369. wyll of my gate, lost in error as to my road, wandered : so in l. 12823, will of his wone, at a loss for a bome, all homeless : will or wyll is astray, or, to go astray; left to one's own will, or, to follow one's own will, hence, to wander, to be in want of: from A.S. wild, following one's own impulse or will, hence, wilder, bewilder.

A common expression in Scotland regarding one who has lost his senses is, 'be's clean wile,' or 'he's clean will,' or ' he's will o'wit.' The word is used by Wyntoun, Barbour, Blind Harry, Douglas, and Ramsay : see Jamieson's Dict. for illustrations. Barbour has, in The Bruce, . will off wane, Bk 1, 1. 328, and Bk 5, 1. 525 ; and it occurs in Blind Harry's Wallace, Bk 6, 1. 182.



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