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1. 2374. ouer-hild, overspread, covered; so in Douglas's Virgil, p. 169, 1. 45.


1. 2406. That ye faithfully shall falle, that you shall assuredly get: similarly in 1. 8953, who shuld falle it. Both forms are used by Burns, Fair fa' your honest, sonsie face;" and, "Guid faith, he mauna fa' that!"


11. 2437-8. I wackonet with pat, thereupon I awaked: the expression is still common in Scotland: with pat then, afterwards, thereupon, &c., is very common. grippet my gayre, seized my weapons: gayre, gere, geire, goods, property, dress, armour, arms (see Gloss.), is still common: it occurs in The Bruce, Wallace, and Mort. Arth.; and Burns has, among other examples,

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But, Davie, lad, ne'er fash your head

Tho' we hae little gear."-Epistle to Darie.

& my gate held, and held on my way, resumed my course: when starting on a course or journey, it is, 'toke the gate,' as in 1. 2877; and in 'Tam o' Shanter,'

"And folk begin to tak the gate."

1. 2446. faynhed, gladness: observe the number of words with the termination hed, hede hood, which our author uses.


1. 2462. toke tent, took heed, considered: still used.

1. 2478. eftesones, afterwards, next in order: in 1. 7424 we have eftirsons.

1. 2481. warpet these wordes, uttered these words: to warp words, and to warp out words, are forms used both in this work and in Mort. Arth. See 11. 360, 2683, and Mort. Arth., 11. 9, 150: also note, 1. 1297.

1. 2483. you blenke, deceive you: the expression is perhaps founded on the effect which the dazzling of the sun produces on a person looking at anything immediately after: the word is still used in the sense 'to deceive.'

1. 2512. Seyit furth, fell back, withdrew: seyit, from A.S. sigan, to fall, to incline, to sink down, to drop away: hence the various meanings in Gloss.; and in l. 6579 we have, 'sodenly he seit doun;' and in 1. 7129, þai seyn to þe yates.'

1. 2536. shuld be graithe, should be skilled, sure, or certain: graithe, from A.S. geraedian, to make ready, teach, instruct: hence, gerad, ready, instructed, learned, skilled. In Piers Plowman we find 'pe graith gate' the direct road (Pas. 1, 1. 203: Claren. Series). 1. 2541. ournes, shrinks: see note, l. 1919.


1. 2549. redy to rode, ready for the voyage: see note, l. 1045.

1. 2572. Shapyn in shene ger, arrayed in bright armour.

11. 2608-12. This is very like what Arthur says in Mort. Arth., 11. 144-151.

1. 2617. pat at longis to lenge on, that which is bound to rest on, or, that which in the long run must rest on, or, that which is to remain, for long, on according as at longis' means, that belongs, or, at long is in the long run is, for long is.

1. 2622. A praty man of pure wit, a worthy man of the highest knowledge; or, a splendid man-of-genius: a pretty man means either a graceful, dignified, worthy man, or, a highly accomplished man. "We are three to three: if ye be pretty men, draw!" (Scott's Rob Roy.) 1.2630. nomekowthe, famous, renowned: occurs in Douglas's Virgil, p. 163, 1. 21,

"The namekouth hous quhilk Labyrinthus hait."

In 1. 2638, nome kouthe name well-known or famous.

1. 2635. ye mon sure fynde, you must (by-and-bye) find true, or, you must assuredly experience: the expression is still used: mon is mun in 11. 3477, 12720.

1. 2649. wheme, sometimes queme, qweme (see Gloss.), good, loved. 1. 2674. at parys to wende, that Paris should set out, or, with Paris for proposing or intending to set out: this idiom is well known in Scotland, as in the common parental monition, "I'm no pleased at you to gae there," which means, I am displeased that you should go there, or, I am displeased with you for purposing to go there. However, the first rendering seems to be the one intended, for next line tells that the people affirmyt hit fully.

1. 2681. with a birre, with a loud cry of horror and dismay: the expression is still used regarding such an outburst: so in Douglas's Virgil, p. 116, 1. 11,

"With langsum voce and ane full pietuous bere;"

and in Christ's Kirk of the Green,'

"Quhyn thay had berit lyk baitit bullis."

1. 2693. on sum quaint wise, in some strange, unusual, or long outof-mind way.

1. 2717. wond in his weile, abode in its grandeur, lived or lasted in its glory.

1. 2744. on the shyre water: in Morte Arth., 1. 3600, schyre waters."

ouer the

11. 2757-8. the grete, the request, the prayer: refers to the command in the preceding lines.

And shope hom, &c.: in Morte Arth., 1. 3599,

"And thane he schoupe hym to chippe & schownes no lengure."

1. 2784. Our knighthode to kythe & our clene strenght: similarly in Morte Arth., 1. 1652,

"Wille kythe for hir kynge lufe craftes of armes?"

1. 2835. þai girdon o rowme, they hold away from it, they give it a wide berth see rowme in Morte Arth., 11. 1454, 3470.

1. 2837. hade kennyng of other, had knowledge of the other any notice of the other, or paid any attention to the other.

= took

1. 2852. waited vppon hor wirdes, sought out their fortunes, i. e. went (to the temple) to inquire what was their fate: going to a fortuneteller is still called waiting one's wirdes. for wynnyng of godys, in order to secure the favour of the gods or goddess.

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1. 2877. toke he pe gate, he took the road: see note, 1. 2438. 1. 2939. comonyng in company, promiscuous mingling when in a company, or, promiscuous mingling in company: see 1. 2964.

1. 2942. ertes, tends, turns. ernyst, earnest

chief. It's fun now: 'twill be earnest ere long.'

1. 2948. les wemen, women of lower rank.

grief, sorrow, mis

1. 2950. shene, seen, or, shown: according as h is or is not an alliterative license.

1. 2965. ouer all, above all. pere onesty, their good name, their reputation still used. attell to saue, strive to preserve.


1. 2968. Halyt, hauled: as in the expression, the boat hauled ashore.' harlit with ropes, dragged by ropes: there are two forms of this verb used by our author, and still common in Scotland, harl, hurl (see Gloss.), to drag, to pull, to drag along the ground, to move rapidly in any direction.

1. 2970. Shall not into fame, should be, ' Fall not into fame,' as the alliteration requires.

1. 3025. the proudfall, the front hair which falls or is folded over the ears.

1. 3028. Quitter to queme, whiter in comparison: qweme, from A.S. gecweman, to come opportunely, to please, to fit; gecweme, pleasing, acceptable, fit: hence the idea of comparison. The orthography of this line forms another proof that the scribe, at least occasionally, wrote from dictation compare with 1. 3055.

1. 3029. nouper lynes ne lerkes, neither lines nor wrinkles: this expression is still used as here, and Allan Ramsay has,

"Some loo the courts, some loo the kirk,

Some loo to keep their skin frae lirkes."

1. 3030. browes full brent, brow very full and smooth: as in 'John Anderson My Jo,'

"Your locks were like the raven,

Your bonnie brow was brent."

1. 3034. brent gold, burned gold


refined gold: brent is so used in the Scots Acts anent the coinage, reign of James III.

1. 3035. wull-full onest, extremely beautiful; ? Well full. euyn,


1. 3055. Alse qwyte, &c. = as white and evenly as any whale-bone, i. e. ivory much of the ivory in common use was got from the tusks of the walrus: hence the mistake as to its being whale-bone. Dunbar, in None may assure in this Warld,' has,

"Toungis now ar maid of quhyte quhaill bone,
And hairtis are maid of hard flynt stone."

1. 3076. as a nepe white, as white as a turnip nepe is still used in country districts of Scotland.

A.S. naepe.

1. 3077. The brede of hir brest, the surface of her breast, her whole bosom similarly, "he fell on the brade o' his back."

1. 3078. pluttide a litull, slightly pimpled, i. e. covered with minute


points, as such skin is when healthy in 1. 3837 we have pluccid: both forms are still used; but pluccid generally implies larger pimples, such as are seen on the face of gross-living persons.

1. 3094. full thrange, full busily: so still, as in 'You're working awa' fu' thrang there,' or in, ‘I sit here full thrang doin' naething.'

1. 3121. Ayther vnto oper, each to the other: so again in l. 3340 : in Morte Arth., 1. 939, we have, aythyre after other.'


1. 3123. festoned pere forward, sealed their promise, pledged each other in Piers Plowman, Pas. 2, 1. 123, 'pow hast fest hire to fals;' in The Bruce, Bk 14, 1. 643, maid festnyng of frendschip;' and in Wyntoun, Bk 9, ch. 25, ll. 61-4, 'trewis wes takyn and fermly festnyt.'

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1. 3163. and a gai quhene, a gay queen, or, a splendid lady: qwhene, a queen, or, a young or dashing lady: the phrase is still used, as 'she's a gay queen,' meaning, one who is showy in person or in dress. See 'gay ladys,' 1. 3202.

radly. fairer, better.

and we fer soght, although far, far and near, to the farthest: the ex

11. 3171-2. rad = we should search far: fer pression is still used in this sense.


1. 3220. braid, rushed. bright gere, bright weapons: see note, 1. 2438. buskit hom furthe, got ready and set out for various meanings of busk, see Gloss.

1. 3222. kyd, famous, noble: a favourite word of our author, occurs again and again both in this work and in the Morte Arth.

1. 3242. ythes, waves. cogges, boats. Both words occur in Morte Arthure; and cog and coggle are still used in Scotland as names of small boats also coggly unsteady.

1. 3279. pus bemournet, thus (she) bewailed. no meite toke, took no food meat is the word most used in Scotland for food, sometimes too for meal, repast, as in 11. 2558, 7843.

1. 3296. ne hopis pou not, do you not suppose, or, do you not believe: hope is still used in this sense, as in, 'I'm trying to hope he's a' safe.' 1. 3330. all hor senndes, all their awards, all they are pleased to send; a present is sometimes called a send.

1. 3332. full leell, full steadfast, true-hearted: leel is still used as a term of endearment, as in, 'my leel guidman,' and,

"It's a' to pleasure our guidman,

For he's baith leal and true."

It is also used in the sense of honest, upright, faithful, as in 'Truth bides in a leal heart;' and in 1. 12712, 'a lede þat he leell trist' = a man that he trusted was honest.

1. 3372. an evenyng to me, had or held equal rank with me; euenyng, equality.

1. 3404. As qwemet for a qwene, as was becoming for a queen, or, as suited the rank of a queen. quaintly, gorgeously, beyond what was usual in beauty or grandeur: quaint, from O.Fr. cointe, elegant.

1. 3422. takand tomly o pere way, lit. taking leisurely their way, moving slowly along.

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1. 3156. lyuys, lively, all alive: on lyue, and so used in l. 13513, halfe-lyues, half-alive, or as now, half dead: however, it may also be rendered, they live (continue).

1. 3487. you bese for to se, you are doomed to see: the expression is still used in this sense.

1. 3491. gretyng, weeping, wailing: still used. In 1. 8677 it is grete, which is also used. gremy perhaps should be gremp, bitterness, anger, rage, as in Wm. and Werwolf, where Sir F. Madden refers it to O.N. grimt. The word occurs in II. 1720, 4754; and certainly in 1. 1720 gremp suits the measure better.

1. 3523. teghit her in yrnes, bound her in irons. 11. 3538-42. This passage is somewhat confused.

Perhaps the lines have been displaced: if so, 1. 3541 should be set between 11. 3538-9 as a parenthesis.

11. 3550-1. Compare Morte Arthure, 11, 715-16,

"And then cho swounes fulle swythe when he hys.swerde aschede

Twys in a swounyng, swelte as cho walde."

where twys is an error for swys, which the alliteration demands, and which occurs two or three times in Morte Arth.: then the line corresponds with 1. 9454 of this work,

"Sweyt into swym, as he swelt wold."

It is interesting to compare the various settings of this picture as given in this work and in the Morte Arthure; and to note how the different attitudes are suggested or represented. See ll. 5753, 8046, 8704-6, 9454, 10365-6, 10566-7; and Morte Arth., 11. 715-16, 1466-7, 2960-1, 2982, 3969, 4246, 4272-3: as has been observed before, the touches in the M. Arth. tell that the hand has become firmer.

1. 3640. salus, salutations, greetings: salus occurs as a vb. in Wallace, Bk 6, 1. 131,


He salust thaim, as it war bot in scorn."

1. 3656. ilke-a-dele, every part, every particular: is still used : from A.S. aele, each; and duel, a part, a portion; hence degree, quantity, amount, as in Chaucer, she was sumdele deaf' (Wife of Bath); and in Barbour, Bk I, ll. 383, 393.

1. 3688. Compare the passage which begins here with the similar ones in pp. 65, 150-1, 314; and note the striking examples of onomatopoeia which occur, especially in this case in 11. 3691-3700.

1. 3693. ropand, quick or fast beating, hence (according as the motion, the sound, or the effect, is made prominent), rushing, roaring, crashing in 1. 1986, a routond rayn. Rapping rain, rain rapping down, are expressions still in use, and in all the senses given above: in Douglas's Virgil, p. 143, l. 12, we have,

"Als fast as rane schoure rappis on the thak:"

and in Ross's Helenore it occurs in the sense of pattering, gushing,

"Now, by this time the tears were rapping down

Upon her milk-white breast, aneth her gown."

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