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less than the feet, and has a inches or 10 by
Lastly, the Chyápú is neither so frequently nor so much coloured as the Chángrá. The Chyápú is a small breed, fully a Chángrá. It measures from snout to vent 3 to 3 medium height of 1 to 12 feet. Head straight, 7 the curve. Tail without the hair, 34: with it, 6 inches. Ears 3 to 4 inches. Girth behind the shoulder 2 feet. Horns by the curve 14 to 11 feet. Their basal girth, 6 inches. Weight of the animal 70 to 80 lbs.
The long hair and fine sub-fleece, the ample forelock and beard common to both sexes, the sexes both horned, the invariable absence of the eye and groin pits, the feet pits present in fore feet only, the long straight face, short arched forehead, keen and saucy eye, short spare neck, long full body, low rigid limbs, short high hoofs, conic obtuse false hoofs, and short depressed tail; and, lastly, the invariable two teats, are marks alike of the Chángrá and Chyápú. But the gay and independant look of both is augmented in the lesser breed by the finer and more mobile ear, which has all the mobility of the wild state, and is now horizontal, now erect, now forward, and anon backward, as each internal impulse or external signal may prompt.
The horns of the Chyápú, as of the Chángrá, have all the normal characters of the genus, that is, they are inserted obliquely on the top of the head, in contact; and are directed chiefly upwards and backwards. They are keeled, sharpened to the front, widened to the back, and much more compressed than in the Chángrá, and have a long ovoid section, and their transverse wrinkling is not nodose nor heavy nor distant, but slight and crouded, going all round pretty equally. The females are not much less than the males, nor are their horns very materially less, nor different in form. The prevalent colour is white; but some are mottled or blotched with black or with tan; and the belly and limbs and a lateral mark down the head from horns to nostrils, are often dark. So too are the ears; whilst the prevalent white colour is frequently flavescent and straw tinged.
The Chápús rut in winter and procreate in spring, gestating somewhat more than 5 months or about 160 days; and with regard to maturity, senility and death, they show little or no difference from the Chángrás. They are of strong constitutions and hardy habits, but love cold and short aromatic pastures, and as these can be found only in the Cachar region of the cis-Himálayan mountains, to it the Chya
pús may be said to be confined, the immense numbers of them are imported into the central hilly region during the cold months to satisfy the flesh-loving habits of the people of that region, who also occasionally weave the long hair and fine wool of the Chyápú into appropriate manufactures, as do the Magars, Rongbos and Gúrúngs of the Cachár; and in an economic point of view, I apprehend, that the Chyápú not less than the Chángrá is an object well deserving the attention of all those who aspire to benefit their kind or themselves by multiplying the resources and materials of our stupendous manufacturing system.
The Chángra and Chyápú would flourish wonderfully in the driest of our hilly counties, in Wales, England or Scotland; and the sample of Cashmeri workmanship out of the inner fleece of the Chángrá which I sent to a great house in Lancashire, was declared to be a marvel of beauty.
3. Capra Sinál.-The Sinál or Sinjál of the Cachar. This large and finely proportioned breed is the especial race of the Cachar, where the Chyápú, though now abounding, is, no doubt a not very remote immigrant from Tibet. But the Sinál now is, and has been for ages, proper to the more northern parts of the sub-Himalayas, including the whole of the northern region and a small part of the central region. In these latitudes the Sinál abounds from the Kali to the Trisul or from Kumoon to Nepaul proper; and probably beyond these limits, both west and east, though I know it not. The Magars, Gúrúngs, and Khas too, rear the Sinál, whose ample hairy surcoat and fine sub-fleece, though both inferior to those of the Chángrá and Chyápú, are yet capable of being, and actually are, applied to the manufacture of ropes and of blankets, serges and caps, and only not more efficiently turned to œconomic uses, because the Gúrúngs alone of the above named tribes are wise enough not to affect contempt for arts mechanical; for all arts, in short, but the glorious one of war! The Sinál measures from snout to vent 4 to 4 feet and 24 to 2 feet high. Its head is by straight measure 9 to 10 inches, and by curve 12 to 13. Ears 6 to 61 inches. Tail only, 5 to 6. Tail and hair, 10 to 11 inches. Horns by curve 14 to 1 feet. Basal girth 5 to 7 inches. mal behind the shoulder 2 to 3 feet. goat, even more so than the Chángrá, having the horns less excessively compressed and the keel more distinct. The long face is straight.
Girth of the aniThe Sinál is a perfectly typical