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them in immediate contact with animals, the wound of which is fatal. The fishermen in the straits of Malacca are aware of their danger, and therefore take care to avoid or destroy these reptiles while landing the fishes. The Malays denominate them Ular laut,i. e. serpents of the sea, among which, however, the innocuous Acrochordus granulatus, (Schneider) is also comprised as an inhabitant of the coasts.


Gen. IchthyOPHIS, Fitzinger, 1826.

(Epicrium, Wagler, 1828.) Head depressed, elongated ; muzzle obtuse ; maxillary and palatine teeth slender, pointed and couched backwards ; tongue entire with velvety surface; eyes distinct, below and a little in front of which a fosset with a minutely tentaculated border ; body subfusiform with numerous close circular folds.

ICHTHYOPHIS GLUTINOSUS (Linné) Var? Of a uniform sooty brown, paler on the lower surface. Circular folds 254, of which 8 are caudal. HABIT.-Singapore.

The transversal diameter, taken at the occiput, is nearly equal to that of the root of the tail, and but little less than the uniform diameter of the trunk, which is between the 24th and 25th part of the entire length. Compared with a specimen of Ichthyophis glutinosus, (Linné,) the present is of a more robust make ; the head is shorter, the muzzle blunter, and the transversal distance between the nostrils greater. The

apex of the tongue and the arches formed by the teeth are broader, more rounded. The palatal and upper maxillary teeth are blunter, and appear less recurved. Those of the lower jaw, the largest, present an appearance as if each was composed of two distinct parts: a lower which is vertical, broadly triangular, the posterior margin of which supports the upper part, which is curved backwards, and with rounded apex. The circular folds of the skin are fewer, more distant, and with the exception of the 3 or 4 anterior ones, complete. They are dis.

posed in a manner similar to that of Ichthyophis glutinosus. The crowded imbricate scales appear to be of a somewhat rectangular form, less rounded than in I. glutinosus : in both their surface presents a minute net-work. The fosset of the upper lip is situated in the centre of a small tubercle. The circumference of the fosset is provided with a very short, minute, membranous tube, which, however, after the animal for some years has been preserved in spirits of wine, can scarcely any longer be distinguished. Length of the head,

03 inch. Ditto ditto trunk,

103 Ditto ditto tail,


Entire length,.. Circumference of the neck, 1, of the trunk, 1%, of the root of the tail,

105 inch.

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A single individual was observed by Dr. Montgomerie at Singapore in 1813, in whose garden it was turned up with the earth, from about two feet below the surface, and from whom I received the specimen, shortly after it had been killed. Although, as stated, it differs in colours and in other characters from the description given by M. M. Duméril and Bibron of Ichthyophis glutinosus (Epicrium glutinosum, Wagler, apud D. and B.) as well as from a specimen 10% inch in length, from Assam, the data appear to me insufficient with certainty to determine, whether the present is a distinct species, or a variety of Ichthyouhis glutinosus, (Linné.)


GEN. RANA, Linné. Skin smooth, hinder extremities very long, formed for leaping ; toes palmated ; teeth in the upper jaw, and in the palate.

RANA LESCHENAULTI, Dum, and Bibr. A line of minute conical tubercles along the sides of the body and across the throat. Above uniformly chocolate-coloured; beneath and on the imerside of the extremities white, more or less vermiculated with pale brown. Iris narrow golden, rhomboidal, the two lower sides not joining each other, but leaving a small open space between them. Web of the toes orange with purple spots.

Habit.--Malayan Peninsula.

Pondicherry, Bengal.
The marbled appearance of the upper parts, described by M.M.
Duméril and Bibron, does not exist during life, but is acquired when
the frog is immersed in alcohol. The species is apparently not nume-

Of two the larger was of the following dimensions :
Length of the head,

02 inch.
Ditto ditto trunk,
Ditto ditto anterior extremity,

Ditto ditto posterior,

39 Rana bengalensis, Gray, Illustr. Ind. Zool. is perhaps intended to represent this species.


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SYN.–Rana tigrina, Daudin. Ilist. nat. Gren. &c. p. 64, Pl. 20.

Rana inugiens, Daudin. I. c. Pl. 23.
Rana mugiens, Latreille. Hist. Rept. F. 2, p. 153, Fig. 2.
La grenouille taureau, Cuvier, R. A., 1. Ed.
Rana tigrina, Merrem.
Rana limnocharis, Boie, MS.
Rana cancrivora, Boie, MS.
Rana cancrivora, Gravenhorst.
Rana picta, Gravenhorst.
Rana brama, Lesson.
Rana rugulosa, Wiegmann.
Rana vittigera, Wiegmann.
Rana cancrivora, Tschudi.
Rana tigrina, apud Duméril and Bibron.
"Kodók, Kátak, Lancha” of the Malays.

Body and limbs above golden greyish-olive or brown, in some with large rounded black spots, and with a yellow line from the muzzle down the back, and a similar broad band from the side of the muzzle to the loins. Beneath and on the innerside of the limbs white or yellow, with or without black spots. Iris burnished golden, the lower half sometimes black, pupil elliptical rhombic. HABIT.-Malayan Peninsula and Islands.

Coromandel, Bengal, Assam, Tenasserim, Java, Sumatra,

Timor, Philippines, Canton Province. The species is excessively numerous in valleys and hills, after heavy falls of rain, but adult individuals are of comparatively rare occurrence

1 inch.

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At night the deep short baying sound denotes its presence. The largest individual measured :

Length of the head,
Ditto ditto trunk,

Ditto ditto anterior extremities,

24 Ditto ditto posterior,...

GEN. MEGALOPHRYS, K’uhl. Head very large, broader than the trunk, depressed ; rostral angle and upper eyelid elongated to a point. Tympanic membrane hidden. Nostrils lateral, below the rostral angle. Mouth enormous ; tongue circular, slightly notched behind. Posterior extremity with a short interdigital membrane.

MEGALOPHRYS MONTANA, Wagler, Var. Above pale greyish brown, with a small black triangular tubercle on each shoulder, and a similar in the centre of the sacrum. From the sides of the muzzle a black band edged with white, continued round the orbit, and then downwards, obliquely over the dark brown cheeks. Outside of the limbs indistinctly marked with black. On the elbows, knees and heels a large round black spot. Posterior margin of the limbs rose-coloured. Fingers and toes yellowish white with transverse black bands. Palms and soles black. Throat and chest sooty with a large white blotch on each side of the latter. Abdomen and innerside of the limbs sooty, vermiculated and spotted with white.

Iris rich golden brown, with minute black net-work. Papil vertically rhomboidal. HABIT.- Pinang.

Wagler's short description of M. montana is drawn up from a preserved specimen, which apparently is also the case with that communicated in Erpétologie Générale. From the latter the present animal differs both in colours and in the following particulars. The muzzle forms a pointed lobe resembling the upper eyelids, but smaller. The nostrils are transversely oval, protected by a membranous valve fixed to their lower margin. The upper eyelids are perfectly smooth. The nearly vertical cheeks are above bordered by an angular ridge terminating near the shoulder ; behind by a short curved ridge, which at the angle of the mouth forms a small pointed lobe. The back is smooth without transversal folds, but bordered on each side by a sharp whitish ridge commencing at the upper eyelid, converging towards the

cloacal orifice. On the shoulder, near the triangular tubercle, the ridge is enclosed between two short black lines.

Two males were at different times captured on the Pentland Hills, at an elevation of about 1800 ft. One was found in a dark room, where it was observed remaining motionless during several successive days. Its forms and colours caused it at first to be mistaken for a withered leaf. The second was taken on a tree. The iris is vertically contracted by exposure to the light. The male has no vocal sacs. The larger was of the following dimensions :

Length of the head,
Ditto ditto trunk, ...
Ditto ditto anterior extremities,

Ditto ditto posterior, ..


03 inch.

GEN. LIMNODYTES,* Duméril and Bibron. Tongue long, narrowed in front, widened, forked, free behind; teeth on the romer forming two groups, between the internal openings of the nostrils; tympanum distinct ; Eustachian tubes middling ; four fingers free ; toes completely or partially webbed ; sub-digital disks slightly dilated; process of the first os cuneiforme blunt, very minute; males with vocal sacs; sacral transversal processes not dilated.

LIMNODYTES ERYTHRÆUS, (Schlegel). Syn.---lIyla erythræa, Schlegel.

Hylarana erythræa Tschudi.

Limnodytes erythræus, Duméril and Bibron. Back and sides brown or reddish-olive; a longitudinal silvery white band from the eye to the loin ; a second similar from the nostrils, parallel with the former. Beneath silvery white. The innerside of the extremities spotted and lineated with brown. Iris golden brown ; pupil vertically rhomboidal. IIabit.-Malayan Peninsula.

Java, Arracan. Of three individuals observed, the largest was of the following dimensions :

* This denomination has with propriety been substituted for the inadmissible HylaRana, Tschudi.

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