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4 Megalophrys montana, Wag- Pinang.
erythræus, Malayan Peninsula. Java, Tenasserim, Arracan.
6 Polypedates leucomystax, Pinang, Singapore, Bengal, Coromandel, Mala(Gravenhorst.)
Malayan Peninsula. bar.
7 Bufo melanostictus, Schnei. Malayan Peninsula Java, Tenasserim, Bengal, der.
birittatus, Malayan Peninsula.
ALTITUDINAL DISTRIBUTION OF REPTILES
INHABITING THE MALAYAN PENINSULA AND ISLANDS, AND OTHER
[The extra-Malayan localities have necessarily been confined to such of which the elevation has been speejiied by authors, the Malayan are given from personal observation.]
PRINCE OF Wales ISLAND (Pulo PINANG), 5° 25' V. L. 100° 19' E. Valley : Mean annual temperature : 80° 03 Fahr. Average monthly range of the thermometer : 11°; greatest daily range : 13°. Annual quantity of rain : 65.5 inch. (145 days).
Hills. Granite. Highest elevation (Western Hill) 2,500 ft. Mean anmual temperature 71°. Average monthly range of the thermometer 10" ; greatest daily range 9o. Annual quantity of rain : 116.6 inch (174 days). Vegetation even for a tropical distinguished by luxuriance, beauty and variety. Characteristic features : Filices. (illsophila contaminans, Wal.Schizea dichotoma,---Neuroplatyceros (Acrostichum) biforme, Desvontaine. Polypodium horsfieldii, Bennett.)
Palmaceæ. (chreca catechu, Willd. Arengo saccharifera, Labill. Nipa fruticans. Euoplus figillaria, Jack. “ Pinang Lawyer."* Calamus).
Scitamineæ. (Hedychium sumatranum, Jack. Amomum biflorum, Jack).
An undescribed dwarf palm, hitherto supposed to be confined to the hills of Pinang. Sir William Morris found it on Mount Ophuir in 1847.
+ This species appears to be contined to the lower parts of the hills and the valleys.
Begoniaceæ. (Begonia orbiculata, Jack).
Melastomaceæ. (Velastoma bracteatu, Jack. M. exigua, Jack. J. glauca, Jack. Sonerila moluccana, Rob.)
Myrtaceæ. SINGAPORE ISLAND, 1° 24' N. L. 104° E. Mean annual temperature, 80°. Greatest daily range of thermometer : 10°. Annual number of rainy days : 185. Surface gently undulating. Sand-stone hills, indicating remote convulsion ; highest hill (Bukit Timah) 530 ft , granite. In the valleys occur vegetable and animal forms which at Pinang have been observed at or near the summit of the hills, but not in the plains. Thus at Singapore, occur Alsophila, Schizaa, Tacca cristata, Gnetum, Nepenthes, Begonia, Eurycoma and others, which at Pinang appear to affect a much greater elevation. Instances of Reptiles in common to the plains of Singapore and the hills of Pinang are: Ptychozoon homalocephalum, Gymnodactylus pulchellus, Lygosoma chalcides, Pilidion lineatum, Typhlops nigro-albus, Calamaria lumbricoidea, Var. Leptophis caudalineatus, Elaps intestinalis, Elaps nigromaculatus.
MALAYAN PENINSULA. Geographically, not politically, from 12° X. L. between 98° and 104° E. computed to about 80,000 square miles, or about 4000 square miles less than Great Britain. Zoological information has hitherto been confined almost exclusively to the plains of the western part. The productions of the chain of mountains dividing the Peninsula, and terminating in Cape Romania in 1° 17' N. L. (Point Búrus in 1° 15' N. L.) are almost entirely unknown. The late Mr. Griffith on a visit in the early part of 1842 to mount Ophir (Guínong Ledang, in about 2° 30' N. L. on the eastern boundary of the district of Malacca, granite, and computed about 4000 ft.) made the interesting discovery, that from 1500 ft. and upwards the vegetation changes completely, and in many respects assumes a Polynesian or Australian character. Early in 1847 Lieutenant Colouel James Low visited Keddah Peak, (Gunong Jerai,) opposite to the town of Keddah, in about 6° 5° N. L. which he observes is not granite, but stratified, abounding in minerals. According to observation of the boiling point of water, the summit, a small platform on the edge of the strata, is 5,705) ft. above the
Towards the summit the vegetation becomes very stunted and partakes of Australian character. * Colonel Low further observes that during the ascent he did not see a single animal, but found foot prints of a Rhinoceros, smaller than usual, he supposes, up to the very summit. To a casual visiter of the Malayan hill forest, during the day, the paucity of animals is a striking feature. The noonday light subdued by the dense foliage of the towering stems, gives to the scene a sombre character, heightened by the unseen denizons. Their presence is manifested in the shrill vibrations of Cicadæ, one of which on the Pinang hills is noted for its resemblance to the cavalry trumpet, the call of the Tupai, the dismal tap of the gigantic woodpecker, we creaking flight of a Buceros, or the retreat of frightened Semnopithecs.
A collection of plants from the summit of the mountain, with which Colonel Low favoured me, were examined by Capt. Munro, H. M. 39th Regiment, the only botanist at present in Calcutta, previously to their being despatched to the Royal Gardens, hew.
Malayan Peninsula, Bengal. Bronchocela cristatella, (Kuhl) Pinang, Malayan Pen- Malayan Peninsula, Singa
pore. Lophyrus armatus, (Gray.)
Pinang, Malayan Peninsula. Draco maculatus, (Gray.) Pinang. Leiolepis belli, (Gray.)
Pinang, Malayan Peninsula. Eumeces punctatus, (Lin.) Var. Pinang.
Pinang, Malayan Peninsula,
Pinang, Malayan Peninsu.
la, Singapore. Var F, Dum. & Bibr. Euprepis ernestii, Dum. and
Pinang, Malayan Peninsula.
Pilidion lineatum, (Boie.) (Pinang.
Singapore. Typhlops nigro-albus, Dum. & Pinang.
Singapore. Bibr. Typhlops braminus, (Daudin.) Pinang, Malayan Pen- Pinang, Singapore, Malayan
Peninsula, Bengal, Assam. Cylindrophis rufus, (Laurenti.
Singapore, Tranqubar, Bengal. Xenopeltis unicolor, Reinwardt. Pinang.
Singapore, Malayan Penin
sula. Python reticulatus,(Schneider.) Pinang, Malayan Pen Pinang, Singapore, Malayan
Peninsula, Bengal ? Acrochordus javanicus, Horn - Pinang,
Singapore, Java. stedt. Acrochordus granulatus,
Rivers and Sea-coast of Ma. (Schneider.)
layan Peninsula and Is. lands, New-Guinei, Timor, Java, Sumatra, Coroman.
del, Bay of Manilla. Calamaria lumbricoidea, Schle - Pinang.
Malayan Peninsula, Bengal. C'oronella baliodeira, Schlegel. Pinang.
PLAINS. Senodon purpurascens, Schle- Pinang.
Java. gel. Lycodon aulicus, (Linné.)
Pinang, Malayan Peninsuli,
Pinang, Malayan Peninsula.
insula. Var. D,
Malayan Peninsula, Bengal. Lycodin platurinus, (Shaw.) Pinang
Malayan Peninsula, Coro
mindel. Coluber radiatus, Schlegel.
Pinang, Singapore, Malayan
Peninsula, Coluber korros, Reinwardt.
Pinang, Singapore, Malayan
Peninsula. Coluber hexayonntus, Cantor. Pinang. Dipsas dendrophila, Reinwardt. Pinang, Malayan Pen- Pinang, Singapore, Malayan
Peninsula, Java. Dipsas multimaculata, Schle. Pinang.
Malayan Peninsula. gel. Dipsas cynodon, Cuvier.
(Reinwardt.) Dryinus prasinus, (Reinwardt.) Malayan Peninsula Malayan Peninsula and Is.
Var. C, Pinang.
lunds, Bengal. Var. A, Ditto.
Ditto. Leptophis caudalineatus, Can- Pinang.
Leptophis ornatus, (: haw.) Var. Pinang.
linds, Java, Bengal. Pinang, Malayan Peninsula,
Bengal, Nipal, Coroman.
Var. Tropidonotus cerasogaster,
(Cantor.) Tropidonotus junceus, Cantor. Pinang. Homalopsis.
All the Malayan species in
habit fresh-water, rivers, estuaries or the sea-coast, as noted under each,