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25. Kiu mi tho; monts Tsoung Ling: au sud-ouest, la rivierè Fa tsou: au sud, le royaume

چرکس چرکز


غورستان اندراب

de Chi khi ni; au sud, en passant le Fa tsou, au vient aux royaumes de Tha mo si thiei ti, de Po to tsang na, de Yin po kian, de Kiou Lang nou, de Sse mo tha lo, de Po li ho, de Ke li sse mo, de Ko lo hou, de A li ni, de Meng kian, tous décrits dans l'histoire du rétour. Du royaume de Houo (voyey No. 122), au sud est, on vient aux royanmes de Houo si to et de An tha lo fo. KIU MI THO.-Kundoz I suspect. CHIKHINI; Cherkez, Circassia. From Kundoz the natural step is to Indurab and Ghoor. I have no doubt that a leaf has here taken its wrong place for all the Chinese books, or perhaps Tibet and Mongholian, are written on separate single leaves-rather boards. Itis most probable the misplaced portion commences at "au sud**” and ends with "du retour."

An attempt is made at the end to identify these places.

Houo-Ghoor. Of all the countries and places known to Europeans by this name, I believe, the Ghoor to lie west of Bulkh, east of Meroo and north of Kunduhur and Herat-but we find a Ghoree well defined on our maps east of Kholum-visited by Izzutallah, who calls it a well known town depending on Kundoz. HouO SI TO, Ghooristan, will be its district.

AN THA LO FO-Indurab. We have mention of this place in almost all the histories of any movements between Tooran and Hindoostan; it is given as a halting place of Temoor; stands recorded in the Ayeen Akbaree as east of Talkan; Izzutallah places Indurab one journey S. E. from Naruen. Sadek Esfuhanee mentions it as a town of Budukhshan, rather Tokharistan.

Au sud-ouest on vient à

26. Fo kia lang.


FO KIA LAN-Buklan-placed by Izzutallah at two journies from Ghooree. A halting-place of Temoor before he marched to the attack of the Siyuh Posh Kafirs.

De là au sud

27. Ke lou si min kian.

قلعه سمنگان

Here we have CLEARLY

Kulu, for a fort. This situa

KELOU SI MINGAN-Kulu Sumungan. and DISTINCTLY the Arabic word l tion is made by Ferdoosce the scene of the amour of Rostum with the daughter of the chief of the tribe; from which adventure arises the affecting story of Soohrab. The Ayeen Akbaree tables also furnish the locality near Talighan; while Sadek Esfuhanee places the fort in Tokharestan; so that all agree.

De là au nord-ouest.

28. Hou pin ;—10 kia lan.


HOUPIN.-Old classical associations would almost persuade me to read this word Koofin, the Kwony of the Alexandrian expedition. And here I pause to ask a question; Where are the most ancient works which contain this word of кwoŋv кons Koofen, Koofees? Between the Greek capitals P for R, for f ph, there is only the half circle to the left to discriminate between the letters; a slight blot or flourish would cause the P to become, so that perhaps the original word was Goores-and hence many difficulties may be cleared up, but the analogy of my former readings compels me to adopt Ghorbund. The r dropt with other interchanges quite common.*

De là à l'ouest

29. Fo ko (Badakchan :) au nord, il touche à la rivière. Fa tsou; la capitale s'appelle la petite Ville Royale; 100 kia lan. Au sud-ouest de la capitale est le Na fo seng kia lan (Nouvean monastère). Ou entre dans les montagnes de Neige,

FOко-Bulkh-not Budukhshan.



The capital of this latter can hardly be considered to stand on the Oxus; the river on which it is built is known by the name of the

*Lassen (Zur Geschichte der Griechischen und Indosky thischen Könige, page 150) identifies Hou pin with the pass Upián or Hupián of Baber. According to a note to the passage referred to in the English version of Baber's Memoirs, this pass is situated a few miles north of Charikar on the way to Perwan. The Cophen is designated Ki pin by Chinese writers; and Arrian's description-Kwon dè èv Πευκελαιήτιδι, ἅμα οἱ ἄγων Μάλαντόν τε καὶ Σόαστον, καὶ Γαρροίαν, ἐκδιδοῖ ἐς τὸν 'Ivoór, places its identity with the Cabul river beyond question.-EDs.

Budukhshan or Kook-chuh river; while Balk clearly has the Oxus to its north. There was a celebrated Fire temple at Bulkh called Noo Buhar.

Et on

vient à

30. Youeï mi tho.


Youei mi tho-Hoormuz, "c'est une ville de moyenne grandeur;" in the district of Merve near Talkan, according to Edrisi, Vol. i. p. without the lower mark clearly readable for



Au sud-ouest, on vient à

31. Hou chi kian.


قرچکان خرچگان

HOU CHI KIAN-Gorjegan, Goor being the district between Bulkh and Merve.

Au nord-ouest, on vient à

32. Ta la kian (Talkan) : à l'ouest il touche à Pho la sse.



TALA KIAN-The Talkan near Merve-" une ville dont l'importance egale a peu près celle de Merve ol Roud."-Edrisi. This is the Talkan usually indicated by Moslem writers,-of which the description is often affiliated on the Talkan of Budukhshan. There is also I believe

a third Talkan still nearer to Persia.

De Fo ko, à 100 li au sud,

33. Ko tche: au sud-est, on entre dans les montagnes de Neige.

کوچي غرجي


34. Fan yan na (Bamiyan)—à l'est, on entre dans les montagnes de Neige, on passe les Pics noirs.


FAN YAN NA-Bameeyan, the celebrated town of this name, well known; it was destroyed, with every kind of cruelty on the inhabitants, by Chungees Khan. Here we notice, mím, read as ʊi n.

On vient à

35. Kia pi che (Caboul).-La ville est adossée aux monts Tsoung Ling. Au sud de la ville, à 40 li, ville de Si pi to Fa la sse.-De là à 30 li



sud, mont A lou nao.

Royaume de Tsao kiu

tho; mont Sse na sse lo (Sse na, nomdím Déva). Au nord-ouest de la ville royale à 200 li les grandes montagnes de la Neige: là était l'ancien royaume de Kian tha lo. Au sud-ouest de la même ville, le mont Pi lo so lo (solide comme un

eléphant). De là au nord, le Kia lan Pi to kieï ou de l'alisier mordu.





پل زور


KIA PI CHE. Clearly Kabul; why is substituted for J is a question determinable probably by Chinese orthography.* The particulars mentioned of this place are not so clear. SIPITOFALASSE may be Estalif, a well known town to the north of Kabul. Mont ALOUNAO, has an appearance of Aornus, and would almost point to the assistance of European writers in this Chinese Geography; or, it may be an attempt to transcribe Lulundur jail. TSAO KIU THO is Lhogurd; the Lho having been read3 Tso.

KIAN THALO.-200 li to the north-west, would point to the direction of modern Kundahar-here designated the ancient location of the tribe; thus proving the knowledge of the existence of two places of the name.

PI LO SO LO-Clearly Peelzoor, as interpreted;† which may be a Persian name for the celebrated defiles called in Arabic Khuebur; or may have a reference to Bajoor-or Khord Kabul. Hardly a Peak in these countries is without a name.

PI TO KIEU. I suspect Butkhakh.

De là à l'est, à 600 li, par les defilés impratica

bles des Pics noirs, ou vient à la frontière de

l'Inde du nord, et à

36. Lan pho,-adossé au pics noirs.


LAN PHO. Lumghan; we shall find έgh constantly transcribed as ph.

De là au sud est, à 100 li passant la grande

chaine and traversant le grand fleuve ou vient à

* Identified by Lassen with the Capissa of Pliny, the Kamioa of Ptolemy. It is plac ed by the latter two degrees and a half North of Kabura, otherwise called Ortospana. In the former word we have the probable etymology of the modern Kabul; the latter Wilson conjecturally amends to Ortostana, in Sanskrit Urddhastána, the high place,' in reference to the elevated plain on which Kabul is situated. See Ariana antiqua, p. 176.-Eps.

+f pilla elephant.'-EDs.

sára agrees better with the Chinese transcript; 'strong as ap

37. Na ko lo ho, limite de l' Inde du nord: entouré de montagnes de tous côtés. A l'est de la ville à 3 li, stoupa de 300 pieds, bâti par i Roi Asoka. Au sud-ouest de la ville est un stoupa de l'ancienne ville ou Shakya Bodhisattwa acheta des fleurs pour le Bouddha Dipankara. bâti par Asoka.


ننك نهار

NA KO LO H 0- -Nungnuhar, the old name of the modern district of Julalabad.* So mentioned in the Ayeen Akbaree. In the Journal of the Asiatic Society for January 1837, is given from the London Asiatic Journal, the Chinese account of India,-it mentions :-- "In the year A. D. 983, the arrival of a Buddha priest in China, with a letter, who stated it was from the kingdom of Woo TEEN NANG, (Oudyana !) that this kingdom belonged to YINTOS of the north, (Northern India) that in 12 days from the west (TO THE WEST?) you arrive at the kingdom of KHANTOLO, Gundhara; twenty days further to the west you reach the kingdom of NANG GO LO HOLO (Nungnuhar); ten days further to the west you come to the kingdom Langho, (Lumghan ;) 12 days more to the west is the kingdom of GOJENANG, (Guznee ;) further to the west that of Posze, (Persia.) A simple statement of the chief towns on the grand road from Cashmeer to Persia.

Au sud-est 500 li au travers des montagnes, on vient à

38. Kian to lo (Gandhara) (Inde du nord). A l'est, il touche au fleuve Sind. La capitale s'appelle Pou lou cha pou lo. Arbre Pipala. Kia lan du roi Kia ni sse kia (400 ans aprés le Nirvân'a de Foe). Au nord-est de-ce dernier à 50 li en passant le grand fleuve, on vient à la ville de Pou se ko lo fa ti. Au sud-est de Chang mou kia Phou sa, ville de Pa lou cha. Au nord-est à 50 li de Pa lou cha, temple de Pi ma, femme d'Iswara. De là au sud-est à 150 li, ville de Ou to kia han tchha qui touche au sud de l'Indus. De là au nord-ouest à 20 li, cite de Pho lo tou lo,

کندها را


سنك مهابت



*This is the Chinese transcription of Nagara, a town; Lassen first pointed out its

identity with the Nayapa of Ptolemy.---EDs.

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