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120. An tha lo pho, (ancien pays de Tou ho

lo). 3000 li de tour.

Pas de grand roi : il est soumis aux Thou kioueï.

Stoupa bâti par Asoka.

AN THA LOFO.-Indurab, as before. But there is also a most fertile Canton of this name in the country of Ran on the Araxes.

Vol. ii. p. 321.

De lá au nord-ouest en entrant dans les vallèes, en franchissant les chaînes et passant par plusieurs petites villes, à 400 li.

121. Houo si to, (anciennement pays de Tou ho lo.) 3000 li de tour. Pas de grand roi, soumis aux Thou kioueï.




HOUO SI TO.- -Ghoristan of Tokhara. But this may be Kuristan, the districts on the Kur, west of the Caspian.

De là au nord-ouest en passant les montagnes, les vallées et plusieurs villes, on arrive à.

122. Hono, (anciennement pays de Tou ho lo), 3000 li de tour. Pas de souverain soumis aux Thou kiouei. Beaucoup croient aux trois Précieux. Peu honorent les esprits. A l'est on entre dans les monts Tsoung Ling, les monts sont au centre du Djambou dwipa. Au sud ils tiennent aux grandes montagues de Neige. An nord, ils vont jusquà' la mer chande et aux Mille sources. A l'ouest, jusqu'au royaume de Houo, et à l'est jusqu'à Ou chaï: ils ont plusieurs milliers de li en tous sens.

Houo.-Ghoor or may be Khooee near the Araxes.




TSOUNG LING.-The Blue mountains, extending from the Merchaude, to the Himalaya of snow, from this Ghoor on the west to Ouchai on the east. We have here some repetition of what is formerly given subsequently to the district Chikhini. This latter belongs in my opinion to another portion of the work; at such interchange and con

fusion we are not to wonder, when we bear in mind that the French Editor had not the entire work before him; but was forced to collect the places named from various different books. I suspect the leaves have become transposed and wrongly placed-for from Ghoor of Budukhshan we find ourselves carried suddenly to the west side of the Caspian, and to this cause we may attribute the repetition just passed of Indurab, Ghoristan for Kurestan, Ghoor for Khooei. Our Chinese author having fallen on these names west of the Caspian, and affiliated them on those he had already described east of the same sea. In truth this is the grand error of all Moslem Geographical works. Making no allowance for two places under the same name, always considering them as identical; and carrying routes to and from the one, which in reality belong to the other; of this I could give many proofs.

Vers l'est, à 100 li on vient à

123. Meng kian, (anciennement pays de Tou ho lo). Pas de grand roi : il est soumis aux Thou kioueï.



MENG KIAN.- -Moghan near Salian; on the Kur, the celebrated plain where Nadir Shah before the assembled tribes assumed the crown of Persia. Placed by Edrisi as a dependent district on Azerbeyujan. By Sadek Esfuhanee near the Caspian; it is also entered in the tables of the Ayeen Akbaree.

An nord on vient à

124. Ali ni (anciennement pays de Tou ho lo). Embrasse les deux rives de Fa tsou 300 li de tour.


A LI NI.-Aran, on the Nuhr ulras, Araxes. Arran, y, a tract of country situated between the provinces of Azerbaejan, Shervan and Armeneyuh. To Arran belong the cities Mooghan, so, and others. -Sadek Esfuhance.

Lying on both banks of the Fatson, or Oxus; this is but a portion of an old and far extended Geographical error, which connected, first the Oxus with the Uturuk or river of the Torks, and then with or without intervention of the Caspian, made the Araxes also a continuation of the same river. The Chinese author may have found in some works the Arran lying on both banks of a river, and from his own idea

given the name. This supposed identity of the Uturuk and the Oxus is the real cause of all the stories of the Oxus having once fallen into the Caspian.

A l'est on vient à

125. Ko lo hou, (anciennement pays de Tou

ho lo) touche au nord, le Fa tsou.

کورکان جرجان جرقان

KOLO HOU.— -Goorgan? The old mistake of the Uturuk for the Oxus-Joorjan of our maps.

A l'est passant la chaîne après plusieurs cantons et citès, à 300 li,

126. Ke li se mo, (anciennement pays de Tou ho lo). 100 li de l'est à l'ouest, 300 du nord au sud.


KELISEMO.-Khorasan, the well known district of the Sun.
Allant an nord-est on vient à

127. Po li ho, (anciennement pays de Tou ho lo), 100 li de l'est à l'ouest, 300 li du sud au nord.


POLIHO. Reads like Balkh; which lies in a north-east direction from Khorasan, might stand for Bulghar.


Kharisın; in the former part we had Holisemikia as


De Ke li se mo passant les montagnes, à l'est à 300 li, on vient à



128. Sse mo tha lo, (anciennement pays de Tou ho lo), 3000 li de tour. A l'ouest des monts Tsoung Ling, la domination des Thou khioueï a beaucoup altéré les mœurs et deplacé les peuples. Ce pays touche à l'ouest, à celui de Ke li

se mo.

p. 336.

"De Babel

SSE MO THU LO.-Semundus.-Edrisi, Vol. ii. Abwab,, Dur bund a Samandar, o, on compte 4 Journées par un pays habité; et de Samandar a Athil, 17 Journées,” “Samandar, jiwđâs, etait autrefois une ville importante et tres peuplée Fondeé pur Noucherewan, elle etait entourée de Jardins et d' innom

brable vignobles: mais elle etait attaquée par une tribu de Rous que s'en empara, et sa prospérite evanouit; can this last sentence and "la domination des Thou Khiouee a beaucoup alteré les mœurs et deplacé les peuples," be the same?

We know that the Kubeelutal-roos of those days, would have been considered Turks; hence it is not a very presumptive question to ask, if the archetype of these two translations may not from the similarity of the translations, be almost pronounced identical. The description of Edrisi is itself a quotation. We have thus


French Translation by Jaubert.

De là vers l'est 200 li à

Chinese Translation by the author of Hiuan-Thsang.

French retranslation by Klaproth and Landresse.

129. Po tho tsang na (anciennement pays de Tou ho lo), 2000 li de tour. Le roi est fermement attaché à la croyance des trois Précieux.

PO THO TSANGNA.-Mazundurestan?

De là au sud-est, à 200 li au travers des montagnes,

130. Yin po kian (anciennement pays de Tou ho lo), 1000 li de tour. La langue est un peu differente de celle de Po tho tsang na.

YIN PO KIAN, is not so clear, unless we can connected by its damun, with the r, and read read, as we have remarked before of the r. De là au sud-est, franchissant la chaîne par un chemin périleux, à 300 li,

131. Kiou lang nou (anciennement pays de Point de loi. Peu

Tou ho lo), 2000 li de tour.

de Bouddhistes. Le peuple est sauvage et laid. Le roi croit aux trois Précieux.


De là au nord-est, gravissant les montagnes par une route difficile, à 500 li,



establish the zal, ¿ Eu, the r dropt, or

کیلان جيلان

132. Tha mo si thieï ti, ou Thian pin, ou Hou mi (anciennement pays de Tou ho lo), 15 ou 1600 li de l'est a l'ouest, 4 ou 5 li (sic) du sud an nord. Entre deux montagnes, sur le fleuve Fa tsou.

Les habitants ont des yeux verts, différents de

ceux de tous les autres pays.




THA MO SI THI EI TO.-Daghestan; we have already had į gh transહું cribed as m. Thian pin Durbund, pin beng bund as we remarked in Ghorbund; Durbund lies on the west coast of the Caspian. The Arabic name being Babul abwab. Can some story of Green-eyes be traced to this country.

133. Che khi ni (2000 li de tour). La capitale s'appelle Wen ta to. Ce pays est au nord des grandes montagnes de Neige.



CHE KHI NI.-Cherkes, or Cherkes, the modern Circassia. The r has been absorbed, and the final ze j read as before, nun ✪ n.

Julius Von Klaproth visited in 1808, the Tartar tribes lying on the borders of Russia. He found the Lamian religion to prevail among all of them; the priests considering Tebut as the source of their creed – that intercourse was maintained with the parent country by missions.

He mentions also from an original Mongol work called the "Spring of the Heart," that the earliest traces of this Lamian religion among the Moguls are met with at the time of Zungees Khan, who sent for to his capital, the Lama high priest "to establish a system of religion and unite it with the monarchy," that the Moguls term this date the period of "the first respect for religion." The people of this country, called Circassians by nations of Europe, are named Tscherkessi by the Russians; but denominate themselves Adegí; the word Cherkeez is considered Tartar or Mongul, from Cher, a road, and Kez to cut!!! the people who held this position in the days of Strabo being called Zuko.. The result which I am compelled to adopt by my own readings and identifications is, that the introduction of the Arabic words, Kulu for fort, in Kulu Sumungan: of the word Emam for Huzurut Emam, a place sacred to some Moslem saint, prove the names used in the Chinese original to be those of an age posterior to the Moslem

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