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invasion of Affghanistan; that if my identification of Utok, Shekarpoor and Buhawilpore stand the test of criticism, that the present nomenclature cannot claim for the work of the Chinese author, in its present form, an antiquity of one hundred years. I say in its present form, under the names now given to the world, by the French translators. Nay, some of the transcriptions are such as would almost warrant the supposition, of the presence of European Maps, as in the case of TCHI NA POUTI, for Chinyout. The bases of the work are in my opinion clearly Arabic and Persian Geographical publications, many of the words are literal transcripts from the Arabic; and the similarity between the two French translations given under the head of Sumandur, almost warrant the assertion that the Arabic of Edrissi, or perhaps a step higher, his authority, have not been absent. Many a literary position has been established on weaker evidence. Such being facts, we may suppose for the sake of argument two or three modes, in which the present work has been got up.
There may have existed old travels of this IIiuan Thsang either in books or in popular tradition; which some learned Chinese author may have modernized by the introducing the present names of places, drawn from Tibetian sources as regards the confines of that country; or from Persian and Arabic works, as relating to districts more removed from this centre of the Lamian religion; thus finding local habitations and names for various adventures and miracles of the sainted Superiors of his creed.
Or, like the Abbé Barthélemy, some talented scholar of the Chinese empire may have embodied the results of many years of study and reading in the travels of a fancied Hiuan Thsang, as the "Voyage du Jeune Anacharsis Chinois," tracing out the travels not of one Lama, "Asoka," but of many members of this religion, so as to bring within its scope and reach, nearly all the portions of Asia, in which this religion ever had footing.
Or the whole of it may be a modern compilation of some book-maker, with Geographical information for its end, while the various religious ancedotes have been introduced as relief to a dry discourse. The spoliation of western Asia, the plunder of the celebrated libraries of Bokhara, Sumurkund and Baghdad, by the Mogul armies under Zungees Khan and his sons, must have carried to China numerous valuable
Persian and Arabic works, whence much of this information may have been obtained. These books may have been read by Molás of Kashgar or any other Moslem province of China.
But above all, we must not forget the information which may have been imported to the learned of the celestial empire by the Jesuit Missions of the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries. Nay, much earlier; for, from the travels of Marco Polo, and from the Persian histories of Monka Khan, we know that Europeans had great influence in China, at a much earlier age; we all understand that the Jesuit Missions always considered instruction as one of their most powerful means. followers of Loyola improved the Chinese Almanacs, and hence it may be inferred were not entirely neglectful of the sister science of Geogra phy. Nor should we forget the connection even now existing with Russia. With these sources of information open we need not be so much astonished at the identifications which are here discovered. I am inclined to give a very recent date to the whole compilation.*
I would remark, that particulars appear more minute round Kabul, as a centre; that the distances and directions are utterly worthless, being the combined results of misreadings, misunderstandings and guess work. Meridians of Latitude and Longitude have been followed in some instances, routes of marches and caravans in others, that the places are less distinctly delineated as more distant from Kabul; that the points of the compass have been strangely perverted, often reversed. The Chinese measure of Li may be taken in gross measurements as } of a mile.
The Geographical work of Edrisi was compiled II. 548, A. D. 1154, for Roger king of Naples and Sicily.-By Abou Abdallah, Mohummudbin Mohummud el Edrisi; from numerous older books, chiefly Arabic.
The Sadek Esfuhanee, is a Geographical table of Latitudes and Longitudes translated for the Oriental Translation; Fund but the errors are endless, the Latitudes and Longitudes being copied with no attention to their correctness; in other respects the work is useful. Of the author few particulars are known, except that he lived about A. D. 1635.
The Ayeen Akbaree is the great work of the celebrated Abul Fuzl, one of the Ministers of Akbar, emperor of Hindoostan. The work
*The great geographical compilation entitled Pian i tian, is quite a modern work we believe. We are happy to learn by a letter from Col. Sykes, that the whole is about to be translated from the Chinese by a young French savant.-Eds.
was translated by Gladwin in a mode, considering the age and the limited knowledge of Persian which then prevailed, that reflects much credit on the translator. But it is a work which if several manuscripts could be obtained would well repay a modern translation. The original work was finished of the close at the 15th century.
A couple of hours' Herborization at Aden. By M. P. Edgeworth, Esq. C. S.
On my way back to India I touched at Aden in October 1846, and while the steamer was coaling was able to make a short herborization in the little ravine behind the hotel and on the very bare rocky sides of the hill adjoining. As very little seems to be known regarding the flora of this terrestrial paradise, I think that the results of my two hours' stroll may prove not uninteresting, as there are some curious forms and new genera and species to be noted among the few flowers I collected. The soil in which I found them was gravelly or rocky, the rocks all of volcanic origin. Of several species, which I believe I have identified with the description given in De Candolles Prodromus, I subjoin more detailed characters.
CLEOME DROSERIFOLIA, De C. No. 23, p. 239, to which description may be added—
*It is probable that most of these plants are to be found in the collection made by M. Botta, but I have only seen the first part of the description of that collection, consisting only of Algæ,
Petala 4, basi squamâ cupuliformi nectariferâ instructa rubiscentia extus glandulosa, 2 majora. Stam. 4; Stigma tubulosum roseum, Sepala subæqualia. Flores axillares solitares. Siliquæ ellipticæ acutæ (nec oblongæ ut in D. C.) Semina glabra; variat petiolis longioribus, foliis minus hirsutis, petalisque tantum 2 majoribus nectariferis.
CLEOME GRACILIS, nov. sp: herbacea, erecta, rigide ramosa strigoso-hirsuta, foliis alternis, suboppositisve breviter petiolatis late cordato-ovatis, orbiculatisve strigosis, racemis terminalibus aphyllis, floribus gracile pedicellatis, sepalis 4, subæqualibus acutis glandulosis, petalis 4, cruciatis venosis lilacinis. Stam. didynamis siliquis sessilibus filiformibus erectis, seminibus glabris. Habitu floribusque lilacinis cruciatis cardaminem mentiat, ideo C. scaposæ affinis?
CLEOME RUTA, Jacquemont-De Caisue p. 19, t. 19.
This I believe to be identical with C. brachycarpa, D. C. (Ornithopodoides, Forsk.) The description given by Forskahl is perfectly similar; except that the old shoots do not become glabrous; I only hesitate to name it so, as I presume that M. DeCaisne had the opportunity of comparing Jacquemont's specimens with original ones of Vahl or Forskahl. The Aden plant is certainly identical with that from the Sutlej, with which I have compared it.
CLEOME MURICATA.-Erecta glabra apice glandulis nigris punctata, foliis longe petiolatis palmatim 5-7-natis petiolis muricatis foliolis petiolulatis linearibus utrinque acutis apiculatis glaucis glabris, racemis terminalibus thyrsoideis, sepalis glandulosis, petalis unilateralibus, duobus (inferioribus) duplo majoribus longe unguiculatis 2 ovalibus ungue brevi tubuloso nectarifero. Stam. 6 didynamis, stigmate sepili tubuloso extus annulo glandularum purpureo instricto legumine stipitato (stipite pedicello paullo breviore) longo tereti acuminato polyspermo, seminibus globosis tomentosis.
This appears to differ from Forskahl's No. 120, C. angustifolia in the downy seeds. And the leaves which could scarcely be temred filiform. Can it be C. paradoxa?
The flowers are very handsome deep, yellow veined with orange as large as and rather resembling Cassia sophera.
CADABA MONOPETALA.-Suffruticosa ramosissima ramulis junioribus pilosis demum glabris tentibus, foliis subrotundis basi subcordatis scabris margine et petiolo hispidis, floribus axillaribus solitariis longe
pedunculatis, sepalis inæqualibus glanduloso-pilosis 2 planiusculis, 2 concavis, petalo unico albido longe unguiculato ungue tubuloso nectarifero limbo ovato. Stam. 5 breviter monadelphis inæqualibus 2 minoribus, 2 majoribus 1 maximo, ovario longe stipitato stigmate sepili capsulâ stipitatâ setis clavatis hispida.
An C. glandulosa, Forsk. ? differt petalo unico nec nullo.
CAPPARIS UNCINATA.-Nov. spec: fruticosa glaberrima, stipulis 2 spinosis uncinatis, foliis petiolatis crassis ovatis (directione obliquis) acutis apice spinoso-uncinatis, pedunculis solitaris 1-floris folio multo longioribus, sepalis saccatis, petalis 4, albis, 2 inferioribus. dolabriformibus intus lanatis 2 superioribus subrotundis glabris, stam. numerossimis antheris albidis, thecophoro fructifero pedunculo longiore, fructum cylindraceum longum, semina numerosissima.
An C. ægyptiaca, D. C.? at videtur "foliis uncinato-spinosis" diversa. Flores magni speciosi albi.
Reseda species foliis grassiusculis suffrutescens.
Having no book referring to the Resedacea, I refrain from inserting any details.
POLYGALA ARABICA, nov. spec. (Sect. III. Blepharidium, D. C. p. 826); omnino pilis sursim adpressis incana, foliis alternis brevissime petiolatis ellipticis obtusis, racemis pauce floris, alis oblique obovatis obtusis pubescentibus, capsulam inæqualiter obcordatam marginatam ciliatam, seminibus longe pilosis.
An P. erioptera? at foliis nec glabris nec acutis-valde affinis P. serpyllifoliæ differt cupsulâ marginatá, pilis etiam seminis longioribus. Carina cristata rosea. Seminis canniculo basi piloso stipitato, arillus 3-partitus seminis basim paullo superans segmento uno angustiore longiore. In P. serpyllifolio pilis seminibus fuscent, in P. Bothianá semen multo grossius pilis brevioribus tegitur, stipiti omnino arillâ abscondito.
FAGONIA ARABICA.-D. C.
This answers the description fully, and is quite identical with the species so common near the Sutlej, which I believed to be F. Mysorensis, but the spines are smooth, not hispid as described in that