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conicis compressis undulatis acutis testâ punctulata olivacea. Herba, 1-2-pedalis.
This species differs from all I know in its combined styles, and in the very peculiar form of the seed, which is difficult to describe, somewhat resembling a common wooden chess pawn much compressed.
EUPHORBIA FRUTICOSA.-Frutex ramosa erecta, ramis ramulisque lignosis siccis, angulatis puberulis, foliis subsessilibus obcuneatis retusis emarginatisve integerrimis pubescentibus, capitulis solitariis in apicem ramulorum sessilibus 00-floris numerosis unico toro
This differs from all I am acquainted with in the hard woody tex ture of the branches, not spongy as in the other frutescent species. I did not see any ripe fruit. The branches are compressed somewhat as if pinched into their present shape. Beside these species there was a fleshy leafless thorny frutescent one like E. antiquorum, not in flower. Gramina.
ARISTIDA (Sub-genus Stipagrostis) PARADISEA, glabra, nodis glabris, vaginis arcte amplexicaulibus striatis ore pauce barbato ligula ciliato-pilosa, lamina subulatâ convoluta, panicula strictiuscula, (1-2-pedali,) glumis glabris membranaceis acuminatis flore plus duplo longioribus (inferiore 8 lin: superiore 6 lin: longo) palea exteriore arcte convoluta, apice integro articulatim aristata, arista basi tortâ, 3 partita, ramis lateralibus brevibus setaceis medio longissimo plumoso basim versus nudiusculo, (3-4-pollicari, 6-9 lin :) palea interiore breviore ovata apice 3-dentata, lodiculis 2 hyalinis lanceolatis acutis, semine cylindraceo, callo pilis albis barbato obconico; stylis brevibus crebre plumosis.
I have named this paradisea from its resemblance to a plume of the bird of Paradise, not from its growing at Aden. It approaches 4. ciliata and A. lanata, but differs in its smooth joints from the former, and smooth culms, &c. from the latter, and from both in the proportions of the awn, as given in Trinius and Ruprecht's elaborate exposition of the Stipaces in the memoirs of the Petersburg academy, 1843.
Saccharum? dissitiflorum, puberulum, ligula ciliato-barbata, panicula patente locustis omnibus pedicellatis solitariis, sericeo-pilosis, muticis.
Gramen tenerum 1-2-pedale, culmis tentibus, vaginisque striatis, puberulis, nodis pubescentibus, ligula ciliato-barbata folio supra piloso subtus
puberuli attenuato brevi, panicula erecta patente nodis pilosis ceterum glabris ramis ramosis ramulis pedunculisve brevibus flexuosis apice in receptaculum incrassatis, locustis solitariis bifloris, uno neutro altero ☀; in receptaculo stipitatis pilis sericeis glumis 3-plo longioribus, involucratis caducis, glumis 2 herbaceis ellipticis obtusis 2-5-nervis dorso longe sericeo pilosis, floris neutri palea unica hyalina apice ciliolata acuta, 2 nervia floris paleis lucidis acutis, exteriore alterum arcte involvente interioris marginibus hyalinis lodiculis minimis, stam 3, antheris fulvis, ovario compresso conico in stylum attenuato styli ramis apice fulvo-barbatis, achenio nigrescente.
This differs from all the true Sacchara in habit as well as having solitary not twin locustæ, it has much more the general appearance of some of the smaller species of Raphis.
ANDROPOGON ORTHOS (Schult and Kunth. p. 499.)
A. Strictus, Roxb.
My specimens are a little more glaucous than the Indian ones, but I can perceive no other difference.
CYPERUS EFFUSUS.-Kunth, p. 47.
CYPERUS JIMENICUS.-Kunth, p. 24.
Inscription at Oomgá, and Notes on the same, by Capt. KITtoe, 6th Regt. N. I.
In the August No. of the Journal of the Asiatic Society I gave an account of the temple of Oomgá and other objects in the vicinity: through the assistance of Heeranund Pundit of the Benares College, and of a clever young brahmun student Ramnath, I am now enabled to lay before my readers a Deva Nagree transcript of the inscription at that place, together with an abridged translation or summary, embodying the pith of the document, which (though little differing in style from others found in similar localities) is still not without interest; for if we are to believe Bhyrub, Indra's poet Laureate, a brahmun by name Junardhun (whose verses are pronounced to be of a superior stamp and are certainly very florid), this chief and his predecessors must have been powerful. We have a long list of thirteen generations and the date of the last, Sumvut 1496, A. D. 1439, or 408 years ago, allowing
twelve years as the average of each of twelve reigns, we shall be carried back 144 years, or to the middle of the 13th century, the period when the Rajpoot chiefs of central India made their crusades against the Buddhists of Gaya. We may perhaps with propriety suppose that these Som or Chundra Vansa chiefs of Oomga Nugguri, as the place is termed, may have been on the crusade and usurped the power of the former rulers of the province, the Pal Rajas of Bengal, who I believe were of a different race-yet it is possible that the Oomga chiefs may have been themselves descendents of the Gour family, who were votaries of Kama Deva, for at Kooch near Gaya, is a fine temple, the real dedication of which is not known, built by this very Bhyrub Indra, where an image of Kama is to be seen. In Prinsep's tables we find a Kumara Pala Sumvut 1017, recorded in the Sarnath inscription, but this would give about forty years for each reign, which is too much; Kumara is made to be preceded by Bhoompal; the same name forms the first on Abul Fazil's list; our present list is as follows:
6. Sundh Pal,
7. Abhai Deva,
13. Bhyrub Indra.
Buchanan, in describing Kooch, appears not to have done more than name Bhyrub Indra as the reputed founder, for I could learn nothing of him in Montgomery Martin's Compilation, perhaps when I shall have carefully examined all the inscriptions I collected at and around Gaya, I may find some further clue to the solution of the problem. The value of such records as these for historical purposes would seem to be greatly lessened through the absurdly florid and metaphorical style of writing. A petty lord may have thrown off allegiance to the sovereign Ruler (if there were such a person) and have gone on a plundering expedition; his cunning courtier draws up his pedigree and dubs him with the style and character of a mighty warrior, and lord of the universe, and perhaps gives him a new name possessed by some one of real renown. This leads to perplexity; for at this remote period who is there to decide which was "this McNab or the other McNab ;" in illustration of this I
have made my translation sufficiently literal. The Inscription contains twenty-eight verses in all, twenty-two being in praise of Bhyrub Indra and his forefathers, each separately; five are composed of extracts from the Poorans, and one in praise of himself by the poet Janardhun, a brahman. The inscription opens with the praises and invocation to
Narrain," the Supreme Being, after which follows the genealogica list; the pith of the story runs thus. Close to high hills is Oomga Nugguri, a place held for a countless period by the Sombunsi raja (Chandra Vansa). Of these I commence with Bhoompal, renowned of the Chhatri race, who made offerings to Siva of the heads of his enemies taken in battle; his son was named Kumara Pala who was like unto his namesake Kumara, son of Parbutti; his prosperity remained unshaken; his son was Luchmun Pal, whose rule was such as to remove poverty from the face of the kingdom; his son again was Chundra Pal, who exceeded his namesake the moon in purity, inasmuch as she has spots and he was spotless; it was his son Nain Pal, whose beauty exceeded that of Kama Deva, so much so that the nymphs of heaven came and wedded him; of him was born Sundh Pal, a great conqueror of his enemies; he was succeeded by his son Abhai Deva, who was the greatest of heroes; his son was named Mull Deva, whose fame was far spread; of him was Keisiraj, victorious over all other chiefs, and bountiful as the Kulpa tree; his son Bhan Deva, was powerful as his namesake the sun; Sôm Eswur, (a votary of Siva) was his son's name, a conqueror of his enemies, and was father to Bhyrub Indra, bountiful as the Kulpa tree, many and good have been the chiefs of the lunar line, but he was the greatest among them; he excelled them in good works; he was bestower of charity like the Kulpa tree; firm as Himmala's mounts, his speech was like unto that of Brishput, he was as beautiful as Kama Deva, and devout as the sage Bussisht; he was unsoiled with the vices of the Kali yug, he was learned in the law, renowned in the world, the bright moon of his race. Bhyrub Indra built a temple and set up the idols of Jugnath, Bulbudra and Subudra, in the Sumbut year 1496, on Thursday, the third day, in the light half of the month of Bysakh, in the Ruhenee Nukchuttra." Many were the idols he set up, and temples that he built, wells that he sunk and fine tanks that he excavated; he set up a fine pillar in the great tank; such were the works with which he adorned the country.
The verses go on with a prayer that the name and good works of the raja, and his genealogical tree, might endure through all ages. Then follow extracts from the Poorans, treating of the blessings accruing to those who performed good actions.
Whoso, say they, shall build a temple to Vishnoo, in any place, expiates all sins, even the greatest of all, that of killing a bráhman; whoso buildeth a temple at a holy place of pilgrimage does even as much again; he who builds on a hill realizes an hundred times the good, and whoso buildeth on a high peak a thousand. They who build temples to Vishnoo, of brick or stone, ensure not only expiation for themselves and their whole family for as many years as there are bricks or stones, but five thousand generations past and to come, and they will abide in heaven.
I think it will be admitted that the above is sufficiently florid, yet it records the building of the temple, which is no mean edifice, the pillar of which I gave a sketch, and the many small temples that crown every peak on the cluster of hills commanding the place; the wells, the tanks, all exist; so far the inscription is interesting, and it is one of few, if not a sole instance, of the name of the place being handed down unchanged to the present period, as well as the objects. described. We are thus enabled to find the period of a particular style of building, which of itself is very useful in forming an estimate of the progress of Hindu architecture. We fix a date at which the worship of Jugnáth, Bulbudrá and Subudrá existed in Behár, at which also various other deities of the Hindu pantheon, were there worshipped or acknowledged; and I should here observe a compilation containing all the inscriptions yet brought to light, and to which all that may be found should be added, would be of great value to the archaeologist and historian, by enabling him at once to arrive at valuable conclusions; and it must have been observed by those who have been at all engaged in such studies, that one inscription aids in the decyphering of another and in forming a connecting link in the chain of historical facts. In illustration of this I am tempted to offer an instance which though involved in doubt through the nearly illegible state of the inscription, still leaves a probability.
In an inscription found on a stone in the hills of Sirgoojoh, by Col.