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यस्य मनश्च तुष्ठम्। जीवन्मृतः कस्तु निरुद्यमायः कावा मतिौनजने दुराशा॥ ५ ॥ पापोस्ति कोयोममताभिमानः कोमोहहेतुः परमांवुजाक्षी। कोजन्मनान्धोमदनातुरोयो मत्युश्च कोवाऽपयाः स्वकीयं ।। ६॥ कोवा गुरुयहि हितोपदेशा शिष्यश्च कोयोगुरुभक्तिपूर्णः। कोदोर्घरोगोऽसतरवसंगः किमौषधं साधुसमागमोहि ॥ ७॥ किं भूषणाभूषण. मस्तिशीलं तीर्थं परं किं खमनोविशुद्ध। किमस्ति हेयं कनकंच कान्ता सेव्यं सदा किं गुरुवेदवाक्यं ।। ८॥ के हेतवो ब्रह्मगतौ सुसंति सत्संगवेदांतविचारविद्या । के संतिसंतोखिलवीतरागाः कोवा निरीहः शिवतत्वनिष्ठः ॥६॥ कोवा ज्वरः प्राणभृतांहि चिंता मूर्खस्तु कायस्त विवेकहीनः। कार्याप्रिया का शिवविष्णुभक्तिः किंजीवनं दोषविवर्जितं यत्॥१०॥ विद्याहि का ब्रह्ममतिपदा या बोधोहि कोयस्तु विवेकहेतुः कोवाप्त यात्मावगमोहि योवै सर्वं जितं केन मनोहि येन || ११ ।। शूरान्महाशूरतमोहि कोवा मनोजबाणैर्व्यथितोनयस्तु । प्राज्ञोतिधोरश्च समस्ति कोवा प्राप्तो न मोहं ललनाकटाक्षः॥ १२॥ विधादिषं किं विषयाः समस्ता दुःखी सदा को विधयानुरागी। धन्यास्ति कोयस्तु परोपकारी कः पूजनीयो विभुतत्वदर्शी ॥१३ ॥ सीखवस्थास्खपि किं न कार्यमसत्सभालोकनपापलोभं। कार्य सदा किं पठनं स्वधर्म संसारमूलंहि किमस्ति दारा ।। १४ ॥ दक्षान्महादक्षतमोहि कोवा नाऱ्या पिशाया नहि वंचितोयः। का टंखलाप्राणभृतांहि नारी दिव्यं व्रतं किंच निरस्तदैन्यं ॥ १५ ॥ ज्ञातुं न सक्यं हि किमस्ति सर्वैर्याघिन्मनोयच्चरितं तदीयं । का दुस्त्यजा सर्वजनैर्दुराशा विद्याविहीनः पशुरस्ति कोवा ॥ १६ ॥ वासनसंगः सहकैर्विधेयोमूखैश्च पापैश्च खलैच नीचैः। मुमुक्षुणा किं त्वरितं विधेयं सत्संगतीरामपदस्मृतिश्च ॥ १७ ॥ सदा लघुत्वं च किमर्थितेव गुरुत्वमस्यैव विपर्ययोस्ति । जातोस्ति कोयस्य पुनर्न जन्म मृतस्तु कोयस्तु पुनहि जातः ॥ १८ ॥ मूकश्च कोवा वधिरश्च कोवा वक्तुं नयुक्तं समये समर्थः । तथ्यं सपथ्यं न पटणाति वाक्यं विश्वासपात्रं न किमस्ति नारी॥१४॥ तत्वं किमेकं शिवमद्वितीयं किमुत्तमं सच्चरितं यदस्ति । किं कर्म कृत्वा नहि शोचनीयं कामारिकंशारिसमर्चनाख्यं ॥२०॥शत्रोर्महाशत्रुतरोस्ति कोवा कामः सकोपातलोभमोहः । न पूर्यते किं विषयैर्मना यत्किं दुःखमूलं ममताभिमानः ॥ २१॥ किं मण्डनं साक्षरतामुखस्य धर्मश्च गोभूतहितं
यदेव । त्यक्ता सुखं किं स्त्रियमेव सम्यक् दानं परं किं ह्यभयं जनेषु ।। २२ ।। कस्यास्ति नाशोमनसावितत्या क्वसर्वथा नास्ति भयं विमुक्ती । शल्यं परं किं निजमूर्खतैव के के ह्युपास्या गुरवञ्च संतः ।। २३ ॥ उपस्थिते प्राणहरे कृतांते किमाशुकार्य सुधिया प्रयत्नात् । वाकायचित्तैः सुखदं यमन मुरारिपादांवुजमेव चिंत्यं ॥ २४ ॥ के दस्यवः सन्ति कुवासनाख्याः संबोध्यते कः सदसि प्रवियः। मातेव कायासुखदा सुविद्या किमेधते दानवशात्सु विद्या ।। २५ ॥ कुतोहि भीतिः सततं विधेया लोकापवादा वकाननाच्च । कोवास्ति बंधुः पितरौच कौवा विपत्सहायः परिपालको यो ।। २६ । बुद्ध्यानबोध्यं परिशिष्यते किं पिशवं प्रशांतं सु. खबोधरूपं । ज्ञातेतु कस्मिन् विदितं जगत्स्यात्सर्वात्मके ब्रह्मणि पूर्ण मत्ती ।। २७॥ पशोः पशुः को न करोति धर्ममधीयशास्त्राणि समर्थितोपि । किं तदिघं भाति मुधोपमंस्त्री के पाचवामित्रवदात्मजानि ।। २८|| विद्युच्चलं किं धनयौवनायुर्धनं परं किंच सुपात्रदत्तं । कंठं गतैरप्यशुभिर्न कार्य किं किं विधेयं मनिशं शिवारी ।। २६ || कि दुर्लभं सद्गुरुरस्ति लोके सत्संगतिब्रह्मविचारणेव । त्यागोहि सर्वस्य शिवात्मबोधः कोदुर्जयः सर्वजनैमनोजः ॥ ३० ॥ किं कर्म यत्प्रीतिकरं मुरारे क्वा स्थानकार्या सततं भवाब्धौ। अहर्निशं किं परिचिंतनीयं संसारमिथ्यात्वशिवात्मतत्वम् ।। ३१ ॥ कंठं गतावा श्रवणं गतावा प्रश्नोत्तराख्यामणिरत्नमाला । तनोति मोदं विदुषां सुरम्या रमेागौरीशकथेव सद्यः॥ ३२॥
इति श्रीशुक यतीन्द्रविरचिताप्रश्नोत्तरमाला समाप्ता ।। खस्तिश्री शाके १७६२ चान्द्रादापासप्तम्यां भौमेः श्रीवाग्भूषणशर्मणालिखित मिदं ॥ शुभं भवतु ॥
On the Alorigines of the sub-Ilimilayas.
To the Secretaries of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. GENTLEMEN,—You are aware that I am preparing a series of detailed memoirs on the Aborigines of this frontier in its Mountains and its Tarai, and that in the preface to the first of these memoirs, now issuing from the press, I have stated the reasons which induce me to
think the subject requires and deserves to be treated with great care and equal amplitude. But, as this method of proceeding will necessarily entail much delay, I fancy that many of your readers, both in India and Europe, may be glad to receive in the meanwhile a more summary view of the affinities of these tribes as deduced from a tolerably copious comparison of their languages or dialects.
Accordingly, I have now the honour to submit such a comparative vocabulary of 12 of the dialects found in the eastern sub-Himalayas, inclusive, for comparison's sake, of the written as well as spoken language of Tibet, it being of much importance to give this language in both forms, 1st, because it is employed in the former state with many unuttered letters, and 2nd, because all the dialects or tongues with which it is to be compared exist only (with two exceptions*) in the latter, or unwritten and primitive state.
With regard to the English vocables selected, I have adopted those of Mr. Brown, in order to facilitate comparisons with the Indo-Chinese tongues, as exemplified by him; but, to his nouns substantive, I hare added some pronouns, numerals, verbs, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, and adjectives, under the impression that nothing short of such a sample of each of the parts of speech could at all suffice for the attainment of the end in view. Geographically or topically, I have confined myself to the east of the river Káli or Ghagra, as well because the dialects prevailing to the westward of that river are for the most part extremely mixed, and indeed almost merged in the ordinary tongues of the plains of Ilindusthan, as also because I have no immediate access to the people of the west. The case is very different in the eastern sub-Himalayas, where I am domiciled, and where, as will be seen, the Indian Prakrits have hardly been able to make a single cognisable impression upon any of the numerous vernaculars of the people, with the sole exception of the Khas or Parbatia Bhasha, which as being a mongrel tongue, I have omitted. I have likewise, for the present, omitted some interesting tongues of a genuinely aboriginal character, which are spoken east of the Káli, either by certain forest tribes existing in scanty numbers, nearly in a state of nature, such as the Chépáng, Kúsúnda and Iláyú, or by certain other peculiar and
* The exceptions are the Newári and Lepcha, which form the topic of my second Essay, now nearly ready.
quasi Helotic races, such as the Denwar, Durré and Brámhó, who cultivate those low valleys from which malaria drives the ordinary population. That ordinary population, exclusive of the now dominant Khas or Parbatias proper, * above alluded to, consists, between the Káli and the Dhansri, in Nepal, Sikim, and Bhútán, of 1st Cis-Himálayan Bhotias vel Tibetans, called Rongbo, Siéná or Káth Bhotia, Serpa, &c., 2nd, Súnwar, 3rd, Gúrung, 4th, Magar, 5th, Múrmi, 6th, Néwar, 7th, Kiránti, 8th, Limbu vel Yak thumba, 9th, Lepcha, 10th Bhútanese or Lhopa vel Dúkpa.
I have enumerated the races as they occur, in tolerably regular series, from west to east, in given and definite locations of the old standing : but the first named are found pretty generally diffused throughout the whole extent, west and east, of my limits, though confined therein to the juxta-nivean tracts or Cachár region ; whilst the participation of the Gúrúngs and Magars, as military tribes, in the recent political successes of the now dominant Khas, has spread them also, as peaceful settlers, in no scanty numbers, easterly and westerly, from the Káli to the Méchi. The rest of the tribes have a more restricted fatherland or janam bhúmi, and indeed the locale of the Magars and Gúrúngs, not a century back or before the conquests of the House of Gorkha, was similarly circumscribed; for, the proper habitat of these two tribes is to the west of the great valley, which tract again, (the valley) and its whole vicinity, is the region of the Múrmis and Newárs ; whilst the districts east of the great valley, as far as Sikim, are the abode of the Kirantis and Limbús; as Sikim is that of the Lepchas; and Deva Dharma or Bhútán that of the Lhópas or Dúkpas, usually styled Bhútánese by us. These constitute, together with the Súnwárs, who again are mostly found west of the great valley and north of the Magars and Gúrúngs, near and among the Cisniveant Bhotias, the principal Alpine tribes of the sub-IIimálayas, between that western point (the Káli) where the aboriginal tongues are merged in the Prakrits, and that eastern limit (the Dhansri) where they pass or seem to pass into the monosyllabic tongues of races of presumed Indo-Chinese origin. The sub-Himálayan races I have enumerated inhabit all the central and temperate parts of these mountains, the juxta nivean or northernmost tracts being left to the Rongbo vel Sérpá; and the southernmost parts as well as the low valleys of the interior and central region, being abandoned to the Dénwárs, Durres and other malaria defying tribes which, for the present, I do not purpose to notice. The people under review therefore may be said to occupy a highly healthful climate, but one of exact temperatures as various as the several elevations (3 to 10,000 feet) of the ever varied surface; and which, though nowhere troubled with excessive heat,* is so by excessive moisture, and by the rank vegetation that moisture generates, with the aid of a deep fat soil, save in the Cachár or juxta nivean region, where the lower temperature and poorer scanter soil serve somewhat to break the prodigious transi. tion from the thrice luxuriant sub-Himálayas to the thrice arid plains of Tibet.
* Parbatia, qani, means Highlander, but this general sense of the word is restricted by invariable usage to the Khas.
+ Bhotia is the Sanskrit, and Tibetan the Persian, name for the people who call thiemselves Bodpo, or native of Bod, a corruption possibly of the Sanskrit word Bhot.
That the sub-Himalayan races are all closely affiliated, and are all of Tibetan origin, are facts long ago indicated by me,+ and which seem to result with sufficient evidence from the comparative vocabularies now furnished. But to it lingual evidence in a more ample form will however in due time be added, as well as the evidence deducible from the physical attributes and from the creeds, customs and legends of these races. It must suffice at present to observe that their legends indicate a transit of the Himalayafrom 35 to 45 generations back
In the great valley which has a very central position and a mean elevation of 4500 feet, the maximum of Farh. in the shade is 80°.
+ Illustrations of the languages, &c. of Nepal and Tibet.
# The vast limitary range of snows to the North of India has been known in all ages by names derived entirely from Sanskrit, the Greeks and Romans neither coining fresh appellations nor translating the sense of the Sanskrit ones into their own tongues, but adopting almost unaltered the Sanskrit names they found. These are Hémáchal, lle. ma-achal, snowy mountain. Hémádri, Héma-adri, the same. Hémálaya, Héma-álaya, the place of snow. Hémódaya (unde Emodus) Héma-údaya, the source of snow, or place of appearance of snow, as Súryódaya is the place of appearance of the Sun, that is, the East. The following tables show first the relative heights of the 5 great Andean and Hemálayan peaks, and second the position in physical Geography of the latter, which, it will be observed, stretch all along the vast length of this stupendous range. ANDEAN Peaks.
25,400 Nanda Devi vel Juhar vel Ja.
25,749 Illimani,.. 24,350 Dhavala giri,