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and of habits, operating through 40 to 50 generations, (far so far back I confidently place the migration) can produce no obliterative effects upon the essential and distinctive signs of race. But this is, in part, speculation, and I will terminate it by remarking that, for the reasons above given, my investigations have been limited to that portion of the sub-Himálayas which lies between the Káli and the Dhansri, or say, 8020 to 921° of east longitude, and 261° to 30° of north latitude.

B. H. HODGSON. Darjeling, Nov. 1817.

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Mí sa

Má gúá

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Achúm.
Below
Hog na
W6. Syú. Magi
Wóh

M6
Móyúni
Moyáng
Ko
Múnri
Mháka


Cheul. Sadam.
Between
Bar, du
Bhar
Pár
Páná
Abik. Achúk. Kúlúm

Lundi
Gúngari

Khíonti
Dathú

Mi kháng

Date
Without, outside
Phyi, rohna
Chi
Yáng
Phí
Póng
Bahar
Udúng ya
Máng gyér Piné

Hújéri
Bahar

Báhir
Within
Nang, na
Náng
Nang

Sagong
Náng
Kúsi gang. Hong. U'kúng ya

Nhori
Túng gyér

Bhitar
Dúné

Aga
Far
Né. Nyé. Tháring

Rimbo
Thá ring
Maram
Mánkhó
Máng sá

Rhémó
Tharing
Tápá

Lós

Gnani
Near
Ring
Tháni
Thak nimbo Tha ni

Athol
Neng dáng Nekta

Jyat na
Satti
Kéndo
Khwep

Néthá
Little
Nyúng

Udit
Nigúva

Aman
Nyúng bo
Cháyak chik

Chichi
Bhati

Chék já
Chigi de

Iská
Much

Lháná
Máng. Tumo.

Alá
Máng bo

Yorik
Ag yáp
Badho
Apá

Dhér
Lhéyó

Itch ká How much? Tsam. Tsoma. Khá ché

Satet

Gádé
Akhen

Dé máyé
Kájó

Ká té
Kájeu

Gúli

Kudit

Gísí
As, rel.
Hadétság
Khánda
Kándé
Káté
Salom
Aphá dong bá Kháin suko Khájú

Gathing
Khaga líyon

Dódiv

Kúdáng cha.
So, corr.
Détsúg
Thenda
Phándé
O'té
Olom
Khem phá dong ba. Khóin suko

Athing

Húchúga liyon Adáng cha. Módiv Thus, poz. Jitsug Dinda Dindé O'dé. Dé. Alom Kon phá dong ba W6in suko Chúspá Tha thing

Akko
Chúga lấyon

Idang cha.
How ?
Tsúg. Chitsug Kháché. Khánda. Kande. Kanda Katé bé

Salom
Aphá
Aínsúko
Khátpá

Gathé. Gé. Khaga liyon Kúdáng cha. Dódiv
Thé áng.

Kám bé Why ?

Shú mat

Tik
Khá in

Thé jokma
Káng

Kháinse

Ta

Kútta
Chha.

Mara
Thé yambókle
Yes

Wói

Ninná. Yá.
Ak. Euk.

O'k
I'n
In

Angá
Túp. In.

Hó. Lé. Au.
Khau. Da Ang.

Mai
Ma Khú. Mai.
Anin

Aní
No
Ma. Mi

Málé.
Mén
Men. Na

Ma mai
Má né
Men

Máng

Mẹ túp. Men. (Do) not

A. Waché

Thá


Má ré


Má-nan*

Man

Maté

Μο

Yen. Den.
Also, And

Ra
Yang


Yang


Dáng. Ang.
La

Ning
Ang

Ang. Nang

Bani. Gi.

La
Or


Μο
Bi



Nam. Inam. Yang. Mo.
Yáng. Eu.

Chún
Hadé
This

Isé ná
Aré

Kon
Di. Didi.

Yékwé
Dirang

Thó

Chún yo
Hó chan

Hộ chún yo

That

Phé. Phedi.
Phi-lí

Oré
Khen

Μό
Phi dirang

O'sé ná

Makwé
Khá chúa


Kadi
Which, rel.
Thinda

Ati
Swín

Kós

Tékwé

Gú. Sú
Sare
U'di

Thí
Which, corr.

Ho chúá
Thé

Waré

Khen
Thi dáng
Khó

Hós
Wo

Me kwé
Khá chuá


Which?

Kós
Gang
Khangi

Té kwé
Thé
Swin

Khá. Ko
Ká dí

Gú. Sú

Saré What ?

Tigi
Chi

Maro
Chhú

Thé
Kháng
Káng chi, Kan,

Dí. De
Kháng
Shú

Khá
Who?
Sú. Kha.

Súra. Hira.
Hát

Súká


Khangi. Sú.
Κά


Any thing

Khá in
Khai nàng

Hihi ko
Kándochi
Chizhig

Thé ré
Dimin

Márká
Tigi
Shuri. Tham

Tayang
Chhúng

Khá lái
Any body

Hát lé
Aktai

Súr
Súyáng

Súka
Súi náng

Tólá
Kayé. Ka imchi

Súng
Súzhig. Khachig. Sú ín
Eat!

Chou

Chad

Jéu
Z6
S6
Ché

Jau
Sah

Cho
Sé. Só
Z6. Thái

Na

Thú nú Drink!

Gau

Tháng
hTháng
Thóng

Tón
Tháng

Thóng
Tháng

Túng
Thúng nó

Dúng Sleep

Gnúngi

Ródi
Nyé
Nyah


Nyé
Ipsé

I'p
Nyol
Imsá.

Míst
Dyon
caret

Réd

Don Wake

Phóké

Swón
caret
caret

Bók caret

Lhóng
Laugh
bGad

Rét.
Gwet

Yéré

Rís

Nyed
Then

lyá
Nyet

Nhyú * Ma is a prefix and nan a conjunct post-fix, thus, ma mat nan, do not.

+ Elongation of terminal vowel merely often expresses in, eu in declension. Also the abl. and instru. sign kén, yáken. # N. B. The Múrmi, Gúrúng, Magar and Sunwár in speaking always add a terminal O to the imperative with an Euphonic or harmonising consonant before it, if the root end in a vowel, thus we have Gnungo, Ro-do, Mi-so, Ip-o, for Gnung, Ro, Mi and Ip, and Gavo for Gau. But I doubt if this addition be more than the common Chal-o, Bol-o of Hindi and Urdu.

To

English.
Weep
Be silent
Speak
Come

Tibetan, written. Tibetan, spoken. Nú. Shum.

Gnó Khrog

Chúm brJod. Smrós. caret Hóng. s Byon. Syó

sérpå. Gnúni Kháiá caret Syok

Bhútáni or Lhópa. Lepcha. Gnú

Rhiop Khá chúm.

Sakmá Lap

Li Syó

Di

Limbú.
Hábé
Swáté
Páré
Phéré

Kíránti. Kháyá Man chebda caret Báná

Múrmi. Krájh Kú dyú caret Khou. Jyan gou.

Néwár.
Khwo
Súmú khá chó
Nava

Gúrúng.
Kród
Táya pun
caret
Khó

súnwar.
Gnák
Palo ma pau.
Bák

Pyú

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Sóng. Gro, Gyu, Gyo h Chhar

Lóng hDúg.

Deh hGro

Gyó

Sit down
Move, walk

Gyok
Lóng
Det
Dóng

Sóng Lóng Deu Dyú

Nón
Lúk. Ding.
Gnán
Nón

Bégé
Pógé
Yúng né
Bégé

Kháiá Yewá lúnta Yúngá Bívá

Nyú. Syé go. Ráb Tyú Brou

Hon
Dong
Phé tú
Nyá. Hún.

Yad
Radh
Tidh

Lau Bók Bák Gák

Yáy

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Sour
Bitter
Handsome
Ugly
Straight
Crooked
Black
White
Red
Green
Long
Short
Tall

man
Shorts
Small
Great
Round
Square
Flat
Level
Fat
Thin
Weariness
Thirst
Hunger

Ká pó

Dranpo

Tháng bo sGúrbó. Tudpo. Kákpo Nagpo.

Nákpo d Karpo

Karpo sMukbo

Márpo hJangkhú Jhangú Ringpo

Rimbo
Thúngpo

Thún đúng
Thombo.

Mábo
Chhúng. Phra. Chún chúng
Chhénpo. s Bombo Bombo
z Lumpo

Riri Grub zhi

Thúzi

caret
Khakti
Lémo. Simbu.
Ma lemu
Masimba
Tango
Kók 16k
Nakpo
Karpo
Márpo
Númmo
Rimbo
Thinmo
Thenbo
Mámo
Tippé
Girbú
Gírmo
Túpchi

Menlim mina
Ke khik pa
Nohva
Phem bá
Tondo
Kók tú
Kúmaklá
Kúphóra
Kúhella
Léhla
Kemba
Tángba
Kemba
Tángba

Króp Khakó

Akrim Lé mó

Aryum Málem

Maryúnne Tháng bo

Náng Tyokkú

Manang Nákpo

Anok

A dum Má b6

A heur Nhyam bo Phúng phong Rím bú

Arhen Thúm bú

A tán Thémbo. Tho. Athó Mhámten. Mhou. Amau Chúng bo

Achim Bombo

Atim

Rér rérbo Dúzhí yeupo. Ton kyong phali

Alep. Sab them.

Asap. Gyá mó

Asyum Byé ký

Achim Tháng chhé Pél Khá kém

Ungnó Tó ki

Tidok, Kridok.

Súvó

caret Khakko

Kám ba Khánuhyo

Brot khába Kháng úyo Brotá khába. Udúng twong tong Thacho Udúng útwon tong Kókténg Mákachakwa Mlángai Umpi yang wa

Tára Hálá láwá

Bála Chak la

Pingai Méntá

Reng ba Dáng tá

Tumba Kón ta

Nohba
Sim ta

Meba
Jájá

Gná jang
Au bo

Ril to Pheb dába.

Kúni pli Lea kona. caret

caret Tok pán

Choba
Yóm

Jeutpá
Hotáng
Wait má

Kwi phúi
Sáá

Phoidang

Phaku Khaiyú Bánlá Bamala Tapyong Békó Hákú Túyú Hyoun Wa won Taha Chíhá Tadhi Chigdhi. Bágo. Chigo Taugo Gógú Pékúng

Soba
Kamba
Saba
A saba
Kyún
Kuding
Mlóngya
Tárkya
Wólkya
Urkya
Rhimba
Rúíba
Núhba
Cheunbo
Chumba
The bá
Phal dong
Kona pli

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Marimnoso
Shéjo
Bango
Kérá
Bwí syé
Lala
Gígí
Jósó
Tú pah
Laiso
Hó chó
The baba
Kól sótú
Kúl kúl
Chár pátya

Chúk pa

chú yáng Uto yang

Gónto yeupo.

Yomba
Kugak ma
Kuyok túve lísh

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Magar.
Ráp
Má chák
caret
Rá ní

Nú ni
Swóná
Nú ná
Whá ni

Yani
Láni
Léo

Dúng
Gnáp
Rákó
Arhó


Thanasó
Phéro

Khánghi
Gyépché
Mágyepche
Ring cho

Khan cho.
Mibil
Mincho
Jyú cho

Thúp cho
Khá cho
Shé chéja
Má sécho
Dhing cho
Gúm cho
Chik chi dancho
Bíchó
Gyá cho
Phiphi dancho
Lót chó
Tán cho
Ghiáng cho
Tem cho
Már cho
Krán cho
Dallo

Chou khá

nya.

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SKóm 1 Tógs

Meh'rú
Yoshú
Nama
Wá mik ma
Set lah ma

Phlébá
Choba
Jhén ba
Bhlá
Kwí phi
Phókré

Dhésho
Rúcho
Mhúncho
Dí sóna
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Amaija

Comparative Vocabulary of the several Languages or Dialects of the Eastern Sub-Hemálayas, from the Káli or Ghógrá, to the Dhansri, with the written and spoken Tibetan for comparison,

by B. H. HODGSON, Esq. B. C. S.

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# Tagrimas. Tayú foem.

+ Bhá the bull. Láng the cow. Gno = Bos. both sexes. $ Mi-jang, vir. Mi-sá, mulier. Mano, like Maro, mankind, and so yapmi, whilst Yem bi cha Menchima are man and woman.

* Pho and mo, as post-fixes, for mas. et foem.

Bú sa

Ji ping

Chha ping
Wo ping

Limbú.
Kiránti.
Múrmi.
Néwár.
Gúrúng.
Magar.

súnwar.
Bhútáni or Lhópa. Lepcha.
English.
Tibetan, written. Tibetan, spoken. Sépá.

Gnák si

Moché
La seh'

Mwai
Kala
Mocha

Mújhi
Gnálá

Kardúng
Plantain

Gnálá
caret
Lánga sí

Khúsi
Syong
Hong - bú
Chua. Wo-hong

Khola
Không

Lí kí
Chhú kyong

Ongkyong
Cháng có
River

Hyung
g Tsang po

Lam
Ghyam

Lón
Lam

Kyán
Lam


Laum
Lám

Lam
Road
Lam
Lam

Cháchá
Yum
Yum

Chhi
Cháchá
Chá

Yú sí
Vom
Chá
Chhá

Chhá
Salt
Tshá

Horik. Saho

Dí bhí
Chok bá
Syú. Chégú Dhí

Chála
Páko. Kompo
Athún. Kómbó

Kúsyúl Skin

Pág-pa

Kop-pa
Pagspa


Nam cho
Tamsákpá
Ta liáng

Sarag
Túndi. Mụn Sarag

Sarangi
Nam
Nam
Nam
Nam khah
Sky

Osék

Púkúri
Pachám


Bhúgúri

Búl
Beu

Beu
Snake

Drúl
sBrúl
Deu

Karchin
Khéséva
Sángyen

Nagú

Pírá. Tárgya
Sahor

Bhúga

Sorú
Kám
Karma
Star
sKarma
Karma

Yumbi
Lúng ta
Lúng

Lohong

Yúma
Lóng

Lhúng
Doh

Phúnglú

Stone

Doh
Do

Dini
Nam

Dhini
Nam

*Sujá
Sachak

Nám khán


Sun

Nimo
Nyima

Nyim
Nyí má

Chyan
Keh' va

Dhún
Kíwá

Chén
Sathống

Ránghú
Táh

Gúpsa
Tak
Tiger

Jik
sTag

Swá
Hébo


Kang

Sak
Aphó

Syak

Kryú
Tooth
So

Soh
So
So

Símá

Sindú
Dhong
Sangtáng
Sing

Sing

Rawa
Kúng
Shingdong
1Jonshing.

Dóngó
Tree
Shing

Nams

Dé. Gang
Bangphé
Téng

Nása
Kyong

Lánghá

Gáún
Village
Yül tsho
Thóng
Yál
Kyong

Kwí
Chúa
Cháws

Lau. Lá
Kyú

Di
Ong

Pankhú Water

Chhú
Chhú
Chhú
Chhú

Témé
Sá kí


Khé

Taya

Námi
Búk

Rébé Yam

Thámá

Dhóa
Dova
Kyú

Gná

Ji
Anka

Gná

Gná
Go
Ingá

Go
I
Na

Gná
Gná
Gnya

Ai

Chha
Khana

Kén
Khené

Náng
Hau

Gai
Thou

Khé
Khyod

Chhú
Khyo

Thé

Wo
Moko

Thi
Khúné

Hós

Hari
Khó
Kho
He, she, it

Khú
Khwo
Heu

Gnáni

Gni mo
Ankan

Kan kúrik

Gov ki
We
Na chag
Gnádjo

Anigé
Gná chá
Níráng
Kayú. Ká

Aini
Khenih'
Khananin

Kén mo
Náng kurik

Gaiv ki
Ye
Khyod chag Khenjo
Khyoráng

Háyú
Khá chá

Théni
Khunchi
Moko chi

Thi mo
Hos kúrik

Harév ki
They
Khochag

Không
Khônjo
Khworáng
Hóyú

Gná 1:

[ gú. 1
Gná lá

Gnou
Nahi. Nayi

Aké Mine

Gná yi
Gná ti

Ingá in

Ang ko
Kaseusa

Ai lá
Am ko

Kén lá
Khene in

Chhang-gú

Núwo

Iké
Thine

Khé yi
Khyodkyi

Hadosa
Khyó ti

Thé l:

Thí lá
Mosó
Waya-gú

Ho chú

Khúne in
His, &c.

Kheu gi
Khó vi

Khwo-ti
Khóội. Khói

Hareá ké. Méré ké
Heusa

In ná
Ain ko

Gni molo

Kan kúrikum

Jiping gú
Our's

Go ain ké
Nachaggi
Gnánjo yi

Gná chégi
Nírá ti

Kayú pongsa
Anigen in

An ná
Amno

Keme molo

Chhaping gú
Your's

Kheu chégi
Khenih'in

Nang kúrikum

Gai ain ké. In ke
Khyod chaggi Khenjo yi

Hayú pongsa
Khyéráti

Thenra

Waping gú Thaméla
Khúnchi in

A kúrikúm.
Their's
Khochaggi

Hari ain ke
Khonjo yi
Khworati

Myaucho. Moyo so
Khong gi
Hoyú pongsa

Ghrik

Chhi
Ektai

Kri
Thịt

Kát
One

Chik
Chik
Chi
Kát


gChig

Gni

Ni
Hasat

Ni

Nis
Two
g Nyis

Nishi
Nyi
Nyi

Nyetsh

Nyet
Nyi

Som
Son

Song
Three
gSúm
Súm
Sum
Súm

Syúm sh
Súmya

Song
Sam

Sáng
Blí
Pi

Plí
Four

Lí sh

Búli
bZhi

Laya
Zhyi

Zhi
Zhyi


Pha li

Gná
Gná

Gná
Five
Hna
Gná sh

Bángá
Gná
Gná
Gná
Gnáyá

Gnó
Dhú

Khú Six

caret
Drúk
Thú
Túk

Túk sh
Dhú

Túkya
Tarok

Rúk
Nis
Nhé

Nis
Seven
bDán

Nú sh
Dún
Dún
Bhagya

caret
Dyún
Ka kyok

Cha ni
Pré
Yet sh

Chya

Pré Eight

caret
brGyud

Yoh
Gyé
Gyé
Kakeu

Réyá
Gyé

Kúh
Nine

Gún
Kúh

caret

Pháng sh

Phángoá
Gúh
Gúh

Gúh

Chiwa Ten

Sá nhổ
bChú. Thámbá

Chúh
Chúh
Chúh

Ka tí

Thi bong
Cha- tham
Kip

caret

Sa shi

Nhi shú
Twenty

Sang sánho. Nie Kútí
Nyi shú
Ní bong

caret

caret
Nyi shú
Nyi shú
Nyi sho. Khéchik Khakát

Khalká Thirty

Bokal ché shú
Súmchú
Súm chú

Khé phédáni
Súm chú

Khakátsa katí
Súm bong

Ní sánho. Súyé
caret

caret caret

Sasi sán Forty

Bokal nhi
Zhibchú.
Khé ní

Sú sánho. Pí-yé
Kha nyet
caret

caret
Hip chú
Hip chú

caret

Khá néshi Fifty

Bokal ni shú chú
Hna bchú

caret
caret

Pí sánho. Gniaye
Gnap chú
Gnap chú
Khé phédángsúm Kha nyet sa ka tí Gná gip

caret

Khák nishisasika Hundred

Bokal gná br Gya thámbá

Khé gná

Khá pha gnon
Gyá. Gyá thámbá Gyá

Thi bong gip
caret
Gún sánho. Sat chi caret

caret

Swaika Of


Gi. Yé
Ti
Sa


Kyi. Gi. Hi. Yi. Gi

Lé. In

Ya
Vé. Lá. Bố Yo. Wó

Kwé. Kyé То


La, Tú.Dú. Ra. Sú. Lá

La
Ló.
Ká. Rem
Mo. Nin
caret

Yata


Kali
From
Nas. Las.
Né. Diné
Nébá
Nálé. Lé chálé Nan. Liáng Nú. Manú

Dánká
Yanché {

In

Gná
By, inst.
S Kyis. Gis. S.His.

Elongation of
Ki. Dá
Nan. Sa
Illé. Nú

Syé
Ang

Yé. I

Mi Yis. * Corruption merely of Suryá. + Mho mas et fæm. Gu neuter. Jimho myself. Jigúming good.

# Anuswar merely ST, and for instr. and abl. alike: also yakén which likewise expresses with or sáth, the Latin cum.

Gné gi
Chhé gi

Pha gnon

Ka kyot

Lí gip

Ni shyang. Ang.} wájé

is.}

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