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into uniformity; the white whiskers, however, remaining the same in all, as we! the cireumstance of the croup and tail being much paler than the rest, and mor less albescent, the tip of the latter being usually whitish or sullied white. Pr. Jede (Fischer), of the Nilgherries, is a species closely allied in its colouring to the l. examples of Pr. cephalopterus ; but the former attains a much larger size, z its tail seems to be always black, and whiskers dark brown, concolorous with •
The expression of the countenances of these two species, when living, is : ceedingly dissimilar.
The Presbytis thersites and Pr. cephalopterus, Macacus sinicus (v. pileatur and Loris gracilis, appear to be the only species of Quadrumana indigenez Ceylon; the three Monkeys seeming to be confined in their distribution to the island. The Inuus silenus, to which Ceylon has generally been assigned as " habitat, does not occur there in the wild state; but inhabits the neighbouring 17 vinces of Travancore and Cochin on the mainland of India.t
This is the Rilawá of the Cingalese; and Pr. cephalopterus is, I believe, the Tsar.. corrupted into Wanderoo, which has been transferred to the Inuus silenus by Europei In Major Forbes's “Eleven years in Ceylon,” II, 144, we read that–“ At Verre Ellia, and scattered over the colder parts of the island, is a species of very large Moor of a dark colour: some of those I saw were much bigger than the Tandura ; ab om that passed some distance before me, when resting on all four feet, looked so like a lepa Bear, that I nearly took him for one.” This I presume to have been the Pr. ihersitas : € could it have been Pr. Johnii?
+ Dr. John Davy remarks, of the animals of Ceylon, that—"In respect to the au malia, I am not aware that any species unknown on the continent of India is to be in in Ceylon, though there are several unknown on the latter, that are common on the case tinent; for instance, the Royal Tiger, the Wolf, and different species of Antelope ( Travels, &c. in Ceylon, p. 78.) The "Tiger" so often mentioned by Col. Campbe and others is, I believe, the Cheetah (Felis jubata); which name (or Cheeta Bulazi is in Bengal applied to the Leopard. Besides the three Monkeys, however, there noticed as peculiar to Ceylon, I suspect must be added the Parudonurus seylaniche
, (Schreber, of which Dr. Templeton has sent me a young specimen on loan, and is identity of which with the allied Philippine species, Martes philippinensis of Cameli, ve Par. aureus, F. Cuv., I doubt exceedingly); and, according to Mr. Elliot, the Scinta macrourus. Vespertilio pictus (verus), identical with Javanese specimens, occurs L Ceylon, and probably in the Indian peninsula also; where, however, it seems to be generally replaced by an allied species, which I take to be Keriroula Sykesi ot Gray. Of the Squirrels, Mr. Elliot writes—" There is no example of Sc. palmarum in Ceylon that I could see, whereas Sc. tristriatus is abundant. The Sc. macrourus is qu.te different from my Travancore specimen which you have identified with it (p. 869 ante). I saw many skins of macrourus in Ceylon, all differing in a remarkable manner from each other in their disposition and shades of colour, and all differing from mine of which the mixed grey tint is uniform, and also the belly ochrey. The one this most resembles is the Se. pygerythrus of Belanger’s l'oyage, and I think it will probably turn out to be
3. W. C. Thorburn, Esq. of Goalpara. A few snakes, shells, and insects, from
in Calcutta in a very weak state, having (as I believe) taken no nourishment om the time of its capture, about eight days (or more) previously ; and Mr. Frith pt it two days, without his noticing any food that was left with it, or the ants'. ests to which it was taken, though it lapped water freely : it was then made over
me, turned loose into a covered enclosure from which it could not escape even
burrowing, left at liberty to burrow, and a mess of chopped meat and egg, mixed ith boiled rice, was left with it, which it ate heartily of during the night; and that believe was the cause of its death the following day, after its long previous abstience. I mention these details to show how another living Pangolin should be treatd: for I have little doubt that I could have got it to live, had it not been so ar exhausted. The gait of this animal was remarkable, and gave altogether anther notion of the creature from what could be derived from any published figure of it I have seen : the back is much arched, and the limbs straight and pillar-like. The walking figure in pl.-was sketched from life ;* and the other figure represents he attitude in which it died. It showed little disposition to burrow in the ground, as I apprehend from weakness ; but was content to bury the fore portion of its body, leaving the croup and tuil exposed above the surface. Both skin and skeleton have been set up, and the internal parts preserved in spirit. †
In XI, 453 et seq. (1812), I treated of the genus Manis, enumerating, as esta blished species, the M. pentadactyla, L.,-M. Temminckii, Smuts (of S. Africa, .-;* nearly allied to the preceding species),- 11. javanica, Desm.,--and M. tetradactyla,
L. (v. macroura, Erxl.),—which are all the species that are noticed in M. Schinz's
the same.” In the birds, at least three fine species of Callinacea seem peculiar to Ceylon,
* The plate, however, is less characteristic than the original bare outline sketch.
+ Dr. Cantor (in XT, 239,) describes a peculiar structure adherent to the outer coat of the stomach of the Pangolin of the Malayan peninsula, which did not exist in the above specimen of M. pentadactyla ; neither can I find a trace of it in a full grown foetus of the Pangolin of Arracan, examined for the purpose; the Arracan Pangolin being closely allied to, if not identical with, the Malayan peninsula species.
which I doubt is the true M. javanica), and much less broad at base ; the series of medial and lateral caudal scales amounting to 30 or 31 : underneath the tail, a succession of series of seven scales each may be counted diagonally across, the direction of the tip, from the second and third lateral of the two sides respes: tively, to the eleventh and twelfth respectively from the base; then successive series of six scales euch, as far as the seventeenth and eighteenth. All the scales are much worn; but allowing for this, the series of lateral caudal scales have evi. dently been always much smaller than in the Javanese species, and their tips are appressed in the specimen (to all appearance normally so), so that the lateral mar. gin of the tail is nearly smooth, instead of being very prominently serrated as in the other. The scales of the head, neck, and exterior of the fore-limbs are excessively ground down in the specimen; and those of the upper part of the tail have their tips broken away, so that the triple row of them presents a series of hexagons to the view, very unlike what is exhibited by equally worn specimens of the several following species. The scales upon the exterior of the limbs are also considerably more numerous in 11. leptura, especially on the hind-limbs; the claws of the fore and hind feet are equally developed, the middle one especially being large and powerful: and the auricle (in the stuffed specimen at least) is nearly obsolete. Altogether, this species presents a marked approximation to the long-tailed Pango. lins of Africa. Its habitat remains to be ascertained.
M. jaranica, Desm. Two specimens in the Society's museum, receired long ago from Java, differ equally from M. leptura and from the presumed Javanese speci. men before adverted to ; while they agree well with the description of M. jaranies in the Dict. Class. The tails of both are unfortunately imperfect; but at the base of the tail underneath, a good character presents itself, which readily distinguishes this species from every other I have to compare with it. The diagonal series of sub-caudal scales, commencing from the base, comprise but six scales each, for tae first two series on the one side, and one only on the other, followed by a succession of series of five scales each, for about the basal half of the tail, which is all that is preserved. The anterior claws are extremely large, especially the middle one, and even the next outer; while the posterior ws are small : the auricle is well developed : and the bristles at the base of each scale are more so than in either of the other species. If full grown, too, which they are or nearly so, the size is much inferior to that of either of the other species. The description in the Dict. Ca. gives the length as 1} ft. exclusive of the tail, which measures 1 ft. 1 in.; and this is about the size of the Society's two specimens.
M. leucura, nobis, n. s. This species is common in Arracan, and I am assured that it also occurs in Sylhet, to the exclusion of M. pentadactyla. Seren or eight specimens examined had, without exception, the terminal portion of the tail, vary. ing from about one-third to half, of a glaucous-white colour, abruptly contrasting with the rest. The auricle is distinct, equally developed with those of M. penta. dactyla and M. javanica (apud nos): the claws are of moderate size, and nearly as
much developed on the hind feet as on the fore :* the series of body scales varies from 15 to 17 across, according to the part of the body; and the lateral caudal scules amount to 28, alike in four specimens under examination: underneath the tail, the two first diagonal series from the base consist of seven scales, the three next of six scales each, and the remainder of five each to near the tip. Only the lateral scales of the body, and those of the hind-limbs, are distinctly carinated, even in the very young animal ; those of the fore-limbs are very slightly so, and the lateral scales immediately posterior to the fore-limbs are not carinated. The largest specimen measures little more than 3 ft., of which the tail is 17 inches: the latter is moderately broad and flat at base, of much lighter form and more tapering than in M. pentadactyla.
Lastly, the large Manis received from Java differs very little from the last, except that the auricle in the stuffed specimen (the skull having been taken out, and the skin of the head stretched out of all shape,) appears nearly obliterated ; and the terminal portion of the tail is not glaucous-white, as in all the Arracan specimens. I suspect that it does not specifically differ from the latter; and that this is the Malayan species referred to 11.javanica after Schinz, by Dr. Cantor in XV, 239 ; being apparently also that figured by Marsden.
On comparing together the skulls of M. pentadactyla, M. javanica (apud nos), M. leucura, and M. leptura, I find an exceedingly close resemblance between those of the two former, and of the two latter species, respectively. The skull of M. javanica is of a still less attenuate form than that of M. pentadactyla, but otherwise exceedingly similar, the most prominent difference consisting in the greater size of the auditory bullæ ; the antero-posterior diameter of these, in M. javanica, being equal to the space between them and the extremity of the occipital condyles; whereas, in M. pentadactyla, their longitudinal diameter scarcely exceeds half that space. The skulls of M. leucura and M. leptura are much narrower and more attenuate than in the preceding, but agree in size, and the differences between them are very slight : the most prominent is the considerably greater breadth of the occipital foramen in M. leptura, as shown by the further separation of the condyles, however the orifice itself may have been enlarged to facilitate the extraction of the brain ; the intermaxillaries are also broader in 11. leucura.
5. Wm. Bracken, Esq. A skin of the Ornithorhynchus paradoxus.
6. Capt. Prior, 61th N. I. Three specimens of Lizards from Beloochistan, with examples of the common Belostoma indica. The former I intend to describe, when I can get figures taken of them for publication.
7. E. O'Ryley, Esq. of Amherst. A small collection of reptiles from that vicinity, with also a specimen in spirit of Sorex Peyroltetii, Guérin, v. pygmæus,
* I have heard it remarked that the claws of a Manis are always more developed in the young than in the adult animal : but we have all ages of the present species, and I observe a marked uniformity in this respect; and in Mr. Frith’s M. pentadactyla, about half-grown, the proportions of the claws are the same as in the adult.
Hodgson. Mr. Gray identifies this minute Shrew with S. pusillus, S. G. Gmelis, Reise III, 499, t. 75, f. 1, and suggests it to be the 8. pygmaus, Pallas, 8. erih, Gm. Syst. Nat., and 8. cæcutiens v. minutus, Laxm. It certainly has a vid range in India, for it has been obtained in the Nilgherries, and in a cellar at Madras Major Wroughton has presented us with a specimen from Almorah, and we non have it from the Tenasserim coast.*
8. Willis Earle, Esq. A few quadrupeds and birds from Tenasserim, which had been put into spirit that has since evaporated, leaving the specimens quite dry. Among them is a Cuculus, intermediate in size to C. micropterus and C. poliocep kelus, and according best with Mr. Hodgson's C. saturatus, which differs from C. micropterus, Gould, chiefly in its smaller bill, like that of C. canorus ; if it be not, indeed, the veritable C. micropterus of Gould.
Also an interesting collection of fishes and some sea snakes, Crustacea, &c., procured at the Sandheads; which collection supplies a few species not previously as the museum. Likewise two large specimens of the common Cobra.
9. From the Barrackpore menagerie. The carcass of a Leopard.
12. J. Pybus, Esq. A frontlet and horns of the Sambur (Cerrus hippelsphus), with the beam simple or not forked, thus corresponding to C. niger, Blainville, v, Rusa nipalensis, Hodgson,
13. Dr. E. Roer. A small Cobra.
14. An officer of the Bussora Merchant.' The head and vertebral column of 2 Shark, procured at the Sandheads.
The Society's large collection of European specimens of Vertebrata was exhibited at the meeting; and Mr. Blyth's supplementary Report on the subject and his similar Report on the collection of Australian Vertebrata exhibited at the last meeting, will be published separately from the Journal of the Society.
The thanks of the Society having been unanimously voted for all contributions and communications, the meeting adjourned to the 12th of January, 1848, when the Annual Report will be submitted and Office Bearers elected for the ensuing year.
* Here may be remarked that I have this evidence of the existence of a small brown Sorex in Lower Bengal, about the size of S. araneus, that I once found the remains of one in the stomach of an Elanus, shot about 60 miles above Calcutta.