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worship at Juggannath was in fact the Supreme Being, "Jug-nath," "Lord of the universe," in the sign triliteral syllable representing His three attributes "aum."
That Somnath, the great pagod of Western India, was dedicated also to the Supreme Lord of the creation under the same symbol Aum, I think there can be no doubt; both temples are alike situated on the border of the ocean, where mortals at a glance could see the three great elements themselves, viz., the Heavens, the Earth, and the Waters the mightiest works of the Creator.
The word Somnáth may be composed of two syllables, Som and Náth, the latter meaning Lord, the former, either a way of expressing Srí in the dialect of the gulf or of an abbreviation of the words Srí and Aum, or thus Srí-Aum-Náth. The mighty Aum, the Lord, which latter I consider to be the most probable; the first conjecture merely arising from the fact of "Som" being an affix to other names in that part of India, such as Som Meanee for instance, and others I cannot at this moment call to mind. I am nevertheless aware that Som was a name for the moon, also an emblem of Siva.
I believe Juggannath to be of comparatively modern date; the present temple is more recent than that to the Sun at Kanarac commonly called the black pagoda, and neither are above 600 years old. I think it therefore not improbable when Somnath was destroyed Juggannath was established on the opposite coast in a remote spot less likely (as it has proved) to be molested by the Moslem usurpers of India's thrones.
I have suggested that the objects represented in the Gyah sculptures point to Egyptian origin; perusal of Mr. Patterson's treatise above quoted will show that the idea that India borrowed her mythology from Egypt is not novel. Capt. Burr, in his Journal of the Campaign in Egypt in the same volume has thrown out hints on the subject; nor are these gentlemen the only persons who have brought forward strong arguments in favor of the supposition, I therefore invite particular attention to this point and to the drawings,* in which will be found the figure of a female with the head of a horse or an ass, another of a goat on a pedestal or altar,—the water jars, the three figures, two female and one male. The Lotus oft repeated, and again the couple caressing each other, beside whom water jars are placed. The centaurs or minataurs, the
I hope to be able ere long to supply copies of these drawings to the Society.
winged oxen and horses, and the sphynxes, all are objects at once curious and instructive, for which reason I have taken the drawings I have now the pleasure to lay before you.
As I am always asked by those who have been at Bodh Gyah, where these curiosities are to be seen, I will explain for the guidance of future travellers-first then, to the right hand facing the great tower within the quadrangle, is a miserable modern built mut or temple, containing five Budha images shown to the visitors under the name of the Panch Pandus; beside this is another with a kind of porch supported by eight or nine flat octagonal pillars; on these many of the sculptures are to be seen, also the sentence ƒ‡ƒ• The gift to Gyah of Ajaya the? The meaning of the word | I cannot make out; it may be Kúrú, and if so, it will read "of the invincible Kúrú;" there are other fragments built into the ceiling of the little temple in the centre of the square, also in the great temple itself; further sculptures of the same kind are to be seen in the colonade of the Mahunt's mut or monastery, where there are five more octagons and one square pillar of the same sort, on which latter the most curious subjects are found. There are a number of other pillars there, of the same shape and dimensions, but of a different material (granite), date and style of sculpture, the most. interesting specimens of which are here represented, tinted blue in contradistinction to the others, which are of a redish yellow hue.*
I have been unable to find any of the eliptical connecting bars, but several portions of the upper rail or capping are to be seen; many stones have been carried away, others are built into the walls of the mut and many still lie buried beneath the rubbish behind the great temple, where the rest were found.
There are many idols and fragments of former buildings well worth drawing, and I hope I shall be some day enabled to add them to the large collection I already possess and to offer a few remarks on them, my present notice was intended to apply only to the more ancient Budha sculptures; I shall now therefore take leave of my readers, on whose patience I must have already trespassed too long.
* This refers to the admirable drawings exhibited at the meeting, and on the occasion of Capt. Kittoe's interesting lecture on the Buddhist antiquities of Gyah. -Eus.
The rock temples of Dambool, Ceylon, by WILLIAM KNIGHTON, Esq. author of the "History of Ceylon," and late Secretary to the Ceylon Branch, Royal Asiatic Society.
The large mass of rock which goes by the name of Damboolla-galla, is situated about forty-five miles to the north of Kandy. It is of primitive formation, being chiefly composed of gueiss and mica-schist, and is in many places rapidly advancing to disintegration. There can be little doubt that it has either been elevated to its present position by successive upheavings of its mass, or that by the action of the sea when it was at the surface of it, or on a level with its bed, the surrounding earth had been washed away, leaving its naked mass prominently and permanently elevated.
At the village situated at its base, four lines of roads, or more properly traces, diverge in various directions. One running in a north-westerly direction through Anuradhapura to Aripo and Manaar, another in a north-easterly course to Trincomale, a third in a southerly direction to Kandy, and a fourth south-westerly through Kurneyalle to Ambapusse, where it meets the great road from Colombo to Kandy. To this circumstance, and to the existence of a tappal-station there, the village owes its origin, and as the traffic on these various lines of roads increases, there can be little doubt the village will increase likewise. A large and commodious rest-house is already in existence, and requires but a greater number of visitors to become much more comfortable than at present.
The accompanying rough and badly executed sketch, may give some idea of the appearance which the rock presents on its northern side as seen from the verandah of the rest-house. Somewhat of the shape of the hinder part of a gigantic human skull, it raises itself bare and naked, unvariegated over a very considerable extent, by a vestige of vegetation. To the south it spreads out into a less elevated and naked, but more extended mass, affording an easy access to that part hollowed out by religious zeal or fanatical enthusiasm into cave temples. Immediately above those temples the rock rises in a perpendicular mass, probably to a height of one hundred feet more, and affords by means of a disjected ledge, a dangerous and fearful road to the highest summit. The excitement of climbing blinds one at first to the difficulties of