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To conclude, if Mr. Hodgson had preserved the amenities of fair and amicable discussion, in his various depreciatory remarks, I should have forborne, as hitherto, from calling special attention to certain of his own very marked inconsistencies, to use the mildest expression ; and should have even passed quietly over his appropriation of the Tibetan Antelope (if it really prove new): but in disregarding the rules of courtesy towards me and others, he has invited a plain-spoken rejoinder, which I have reluctantly felt myself compelled to issue sine mord.
P.S. It is due to Mr. Hodgson that I should here notice, and I have unfeigned pleasure in doing so, that I have just received from him a communication (dated March 24th,) in which he has, in the most handsome manner, spontaneously tendered his regret, if, in the heat of composition, he may have penned aught that I might consider as discourteous; and I rejoice that it is in my power to append this trait of good feeling on his part, which I am sure that he will have the generosity to exhibit further, should he haply think my reply at all acrimonious, or written under excited feelings.*
Instructions how to take Correct Facsimiles of Inscriptions, by Captain
KITTOE, 6th N. I.
To take correct facsimiles without reversing the writing which the common method of damping and pressing the paper on them, or of blackening the stone produces, the following method is recommended.
Heat in a ladle, and mix, equal parts of spirits of turpentine, linseed oil and bees wax, with sufficient red lead or ochre, ground as fine as possible, and let it cool. Then rub this into fine Serampore or bazar
We regret that Mr. Blyth has deemed it necessary to couch his defence in terms of asperity. As his opinions were impugned in a recent paper by Mr. Hodgson, he has an undoubted right of rejoinder, for the tone of which he is of course responsible. But we protest against the repetition of such jousting in the Journal, the high character and dignified position of which are in no small measure attributable to the absence of every semblance of personality from its pages; a circumstance most honorable to the cultivators of science in this country, and not ea-ily paralleled in the history of any European Journal. Our contributors will, we feel assured, concur with us that this high character must on no consideration be compromised.-EDITORS.
paper with a rag, so as to color it uniformly, more or less, according to the nature of the stone on which the incriptions are cut; if the surface is very smooth, the thinner the color the better, and vice versâ. . It is best to keep a few sheets ready prepared of different shades of color on hand. These should be rolled on a light roller with a sheet of blotting or unsized paper between each, to absorb all superfluous greasy matter. Paper prepared with ochre mixed in water answers, but is apt to obliterate.
To take off impressions, first of all damp your plain paper slightly, and with little wafers of bees wax fasten it tightly over the inscription ; next cut a slip of prepared (colored) paper the width of two or three lines, according to the size of the letters, and when very large, of one line only; apply the colored face to the white paper, and with a muller made of hard wood, rub the paper longitudinally and vertically until all the letters appear as clear they will, moving the colored paper onwards as the impression comes off : the color becomes transferred by this means into all the raised surface of the inscribed stone, leaving the cavities or letters white. This will be more or less perfect according to the nature of the stone, the smoothest giving the best impressions.
It is better in large inscriptions to cut your white paper also in strips and to number the lines as you take them off to enable you to adjust them afterwards.
When the impression has been thus taken, it should be most carefully compared, letter for letter, with the original, and indistinct letters should be supplied in pencil; it will be found that rough surfaces require this invariably, indeed some inscriptions cannot be fairly imprinted with the color ; howerer, it is best to make the most of it and make the tters distinct with a pencil as suggested.
For correcting, the light at sunrise and sunset, also strong moon light, or by torch at night is best ; letters that are invisible at other times become distinct then ; the surface should be looked at obliquely, and indeed from every point till the eye catches the form of the letters; of course this will be easier to one accustomed to the different alphabets and who may be able to read and comprehend them.
In searching for inscriptions parties should practically, never “ leave a stone unturned,” for they often occur in the most unlikely localities, usually above doors or within their jaumbs, or in some dark corner within, and above all things, never believe it when the inhabitants say there are none, but search yourself for them.
I would lay much stress upon one point calculated to aid parties in their search for antiquities, it is this. Never neglect visiting every clamp of, or single Peepul or Banyan trees, and particularly if on a high mound or by water, for a practice exists all over India of collecting fragments of stone of all kinds, sculptured or inscribed under such trees.
Whenever a high mound is seen in a flat part of country, depend upon it, it is the site of an ancient city. Those who have travelled in the Punjauh, and in the Cis-Sutledge territory, will not have failed to remark this. Witness all the places the names of which end in “ put” and “hana," Panceput, Son-put, Bar-put, Sam-hana, Pnd-hana, &c. &c. but there are very many mounds in the other and distinct names such as Kupoor, Mumdote, Kunnoje, Kurra, Manicpoor.
It would be very useful it in the different revenue surveys attention were paid to those mounds or sites of old towns, and that they should be entered in the maps, the names carefully recorded in the dialect and written character of the country.
Ilints on the Easiest Method of taking and preparing Drawings for
Lithograph, by the sume. Several years ago I proposed contributing (monthly) specimens of sculpture, but various impediments have been opposed to the fulfilment of the promise ; as I think that the subject is still worthy of consideration, I would suggest your inviting contributions, to facilitate which, both as to execution and economy, I would offer the following hints.
In the first place, the more simple the drawing the more correct the idea conveyed of the object to be represented and the less the trouble of execution, both for the draftsman and the copyist, whose charges must be regulated by the extent of work ; a plain outline drawing is sufficient, and should be reduced to the size required for the Journal.
There is a method by which much accuracy is attained and trouble and expense spared.
The drawing should be first carefully reduced to the size required nipon stiff paper, and the outlines boldly done with Indian ink; this
should be again traced on that description of China paper commonly used in Calcutta for lithographic purposes, with a medium pencil, or better still in lake with a pen, and be then carefully rolled and packed to prevent its being in the slightest degree crumpled or soiled ; equal care must be observed whilst drawing, that neither greasy particles nor perspiration touch the paper ; such drawings can be easily lithographed even by indifferent native draftsmen, for all that remains to be done, is, to apply the yellow transfer mixture over the pencil drawing, and when ready for use the whole has merely to be drawn over (traced) with the pen or brush and lithographic ink. Many of the plates of my Illustrations of Indian Architecture were prepared in this manner. The outlines should be exactly of the depths required for the shading, This plan is applicable to representations of any objects in outline and for facsimiles of inscriptions in particular, and will be found much safer than the actual drawings, with the chemical ink on the transfer paper, which are always liable to injury and never certain of success. Drawing the outline in pale red ink or lake is better than pencil, as the latter being dark, is apt to be overlooked in the tracing.
For drawing sculptures, &c. &c. a frame divided off into three inch squares, with thick white cotton twine well stiffened ; the centre perpendicular and horizontal thread being red for easier guidance, is strongly recommended; the paper must be divided also into squares. The frame is placed at a convenient distance from the object, when all that is requisite is to keep the same position whilst drawing, and this is easily done by marking a dot on the object, cutting the crossing of the red threads ; great accuracy and facility is attained by this method.
It should be borne in mind that clear, bold outlines are far more valuable than indistinct sketches, however beautifully colored, which are indeed of little use.
Notice of TREMENHEERITE, a new carbonaceous mineral, by II ENRY
PIDDINGTON, Curator Museum of Economic Geology.
This substance was sent to the Museum from Tenasserim by Capt. Tremenheere, B. E. as Black Wad, but it contains no trace of Manganese.
It is, when fresh, in masses of a scaly structure and of a deep black colour, with a highly metallic lustre, much resembling coarsely foliated graphite; after a few months it partly falls to powder, or rather into scaly flakes, evidently froin the decomposition of pyrites, of which it contains about three per cent. It powders easily, but the powder is always scaly, soiling, greasy, and glittering, like graphite. If the pulverised part be washed and ground, the tougher metallic looking scales remain as a black micaceous residuum, and it is only after long rubbing and washing that they also are pulveriser, showing great toughness in the compacter and larger scales of the mineral. It soils much but is too soft to mark with, nor can any very determined streak be made ; what is so is of a deep black. When heated a little sulphur sublimes ; the mass burns but very slowly indeed, reddening only at first and for a long time like some varieties of graphite, and requiring a good supply of' air to the crucible and constant stirring to effect its combustion.
With patient attention the whole is burnt, with the exception of a small residuum of a very light, and bright fawn-coloured powder, which is a mixture of oxide of iron and silex. Its composition is found to be in 100 parts, Carbon,...
85.70 Water and Sulphur, .
4.00 Peroxide Iron,
2.50 Earth, chiefly Silica,
Water and loss,
100.00 This mineral then differs from the anthracites in its high lustre, scaly structure, and ready pulverisation, by which it approaches the graphites ; as well as by its iron and very slow combustion ; but then from these it differs by its streak, and high combustibility with nitre; for, like coal and the anthracites, when projected upon melted nitre it deflagrates, heating the crucible instantly to redness, while the graphites not only boil but heat the crucible also, and seem but partly and very slowly to part with their carbon till a much higher heat is given.
This distinction I have not yet found noticed in any chemical or mineralogical work, but it seems to me to be no bad test by which to