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many of the bristles being partially or entirely of the latter hue, but so that the general surface exhibits no regular lines, nor the individual hairs any regular rings. The scull of the Pigmy as compared with that of the common Hog exhibits a very considerable contraction of the great length of the facial portion or jaws in Sus proper, leaving no room for the extra molars of the common Hog, which has seven in each jaw, above and below, whereas our tiny friend has only six; by zygoma less curved and bulging; by smooth maxillars and intermaxillars, so unlike the rugged outline of these bones caused in the common hog by the retroversion of the canines; and, lastly, by orbits more nearly complete, having larger processes from the zygoma as well as from the frontals.
And now, first pledging myself to transmit to the Society without delay all the further information I may obtain relative to the habits or the structure of this interesting species, which if obtained alive and induced to breed in captivity, would be to the ordinary pork of the larder what the delicious Gaini beef is to the flesh of the common Ox, I conclude with the detail of dimensions, and with pointing attention to the accompanying accurate drawings of my accomplished draftsman.
Teeth 1:18:8 40; the two first molars only, on each side, false and compressed, and not the three first as in Sus, which has 4, or one more, above and below. Tushes moderately elongated and not much curved-according to information and to the specimen, which latter, on this point only, is hardly adequate to fix the type.
Notices and Descriptions of various New or Little Known Species of Birds. By ED. BLYTH, Curator of the Asiatic Society's Museum. (Continued from page 157.)
Motacillida. This is a strongly marked family of birds, especially characterized by the lengthened and pointed tertiaries (as in the Plovers and Sandpipers), by the regular double moult,* and by the ambulatory gait of the species. I consider them to be nearly allied by affinity, neither to the Enicuri nor to the Larks; although the Water Wagtails resemble, to a certain extent, the former in their colours, as is commonly the case with animals frequenting the same haunts; and the Pipits resemble, in like manner, the Larks, not only in colouring but in the elongation of the hind-claw.
Motacilla, L. (as now restricted). Of this there are three Indian species.
M. maderaspatana, Brisson (nec Lin.): M. maderaspatensis, Gm.; M. maderas et M. variegata, Stephens (nec variegata, Vieillot); M. picata, Franklin: Pied Wagtail of Latham. Inhabits Upper India, and the peninsula; but I have never known it to occur below the Rajmahl hills in Lower Bengal, though Calcutta is given as the locality of a specimen in Rev. Zool. &c., 1839, p. 40. The skin referred to may have been brought from Calcutta; but it may be doubted whether the fresh bird was obtained there. I have once seen it from Darjeeling; but never from the countries eastward of the Bay of Bengal.
* Mr. Yarrell remarks—“ Having frequently examined specimens of our Wagtails in the spring of the year when they were assuming either their change of colour or the additional brilliancy of tint, peculiar to the breeding season, without finding any new feathers in progress, I am induced to consider the vernal change in these birds as so many instances of alteration effected in the colour of the old feathers, and not a change of the feathers themselves." British Birds,' 1, 383. My own observation, both in England and in India, and in caged birds as well as in wild ones, is directly the reverse. I have shot many during the vernal moult (Motacilla, Budytes, and Anthus), and have even found it difficult to get one that was not changing its feathers.
M. luzoniensis, Scopoli: M. alba, var. y, Lath., (both founded on la Bergeronette á collier de l'ile de Luçon of Sonnerat): M. dukhunensis, Sykes; M. leucopsis, Gould; M. alboides, Hodgson; M. alba of Jerdon's list. Very common throughout India (with some partial exceptions*) and the Malay countries, visiting the plains in the cold weather; the appearance of this familiar little bird, and the harsh chattering of Lanius phoenicurus, being generally the earliest signs of the approach of that season. The common Indian Wagtail is nearly allied to M. alba and M. Yarrellii of Europe; but has a larger patch of white on the forehead, the throat is white at all seasons, and there is much more white on the wings. Back of the male black in nuptial plumage.
M. boarula, L. This European species is also common throughout India and Malasia; specimens from Java, &c. absolutely resembling those from England. It even inhabits Australia.
Nemoricola, nobis. With the general form of Budytes, this combines the short hind-claw of Motacilla, and a peculiar disposition of colours, alike different from other Wagtails and from the Pipits. Haunts sylvan, and general habits much the same as those of the Tree Pipit, except that I am not aware of its ever mounting singing into the air, or that it even sings at all. In this respect (the total absence of song) Budytes differs both from Motacilla and Anthus; and the humble Lark-like efforts to soar a little way into the air, singing all the while, seem peculiar among this group to the Pipits.
N. indica; Motacilla indica, Gmelin (founded on la Bergeronette grise des Indes of Sonnerat): M. variegata, Vieillot (nec Stephens). India generally, Arracan, and Malacca; but nowhere a common species, so far as I can learn. In the vicinity of Calcutta, I have obtained it at all seasons.
Budytes, Cuvier. The Yellow Wagtails with long hind-claw.
B. citreola, (L.): B. calcaratus, Hodgson.† Tolerably common, more so perhaps above Rajmahl, in Bengal, where it occurs in flocks.
* Mr. Jerdon never observed it in the Carnatic.
Mr. Gray adopts this latter name, in his Catalogue of Mr. Hodgson's specimens presented to the British Museum: but the Indian species (examples of which were presented to this Society by Mr. H.) seems to accord wholly with the descriptions of B. citreola; from which I cannot help doubting its distinctness. It appears that Mr. Gray has also more recently described the same bird as B. citreoloides, Hodgson.