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(much more so than is represented in Horsfield's figure, in the • Zoological Researches in Java') ; and the expansion and curvature is accordingly exhibited by the two middle feathers, instead of the outermost as in the Drongos.
Sturnia dominicana, XIII, 363. The species described under this head stands now as St. Blythii, (Jerdon.) “ Pastor dominicanus, auct.,” writes Mr. Strickland, “is synonymous with Turdus sturninus, Pallas, also T. dauricus, Pallas, and Pastor malayensis, Eyton ;” described in XV, 35. “St. elegans (Lesson),” XV, 364, adds Mr. Strickland, “is certainly Oriolus sinensis, Gmelin, founded on Pl. Enl. 617 :” it would therefore now stand as St. sinensis : and I may add that St. pagodarum, (Gmelin, 1788,) has for a synonyme the Turdus melanocephalus, (Bahl, 1792,) as noticed in XV, 6.
Genus Ploceus, XIII, 945. The males of the three Indian species, after the breeding season, assume the colouring of their females by a change of plumage ; and resume their bright colours by a partial change of plumage at the commencement of the hot season, or during March. The little Amaduvat (Estrelda amandava) also moults twice in the year, and in like manner assumes the female livery after the breeding
This is well known of the Whidahs (genus Vidua.) Passer indicus, Jardine and Selby, XIII, 946. As compared with the common European Sparrow (many specimens of each), the Indian common Sparrow has, perhaps, on the average, rather a shorter wing; the rufous predominates more on its upper-parts, and is brighter; the lower-parts are much whiter ; and the ear-coverts are of an uniform subdued white. The females and young, also, are altogether considerably paler, both above and below: but the markings of both sexes are identical in the two races. It may be noticed that a tendency to exhibit the same differences is distinctly observable in P. montanus of the respective regions, which, of course, is in favour of the opinion that they truly are climatal varieties of the same. In habits, notes, and colouring of the eggs, there is no difference whatever between the European and Indian common Sparrows.
Ligurinus xanthogramma, (G. R. Gray.) In the Zoology of the Voyage of H. M. S. Beagle,' Mr. G. R. Gray has figured and described two species of Greenfinch (Ligurinus, Brisson), by the names Chlorospiza melanodera and Chl. xanthogramma ; the former from East
Falkland Island and Patagonia ; the latter from East Falkland Island and Tierra del Fuego. In XIII, 956, I alluded to the latter as presenting “a close approach, on the part of the Greenfinches, to the Goldfinches (Carduelis), the Siskins (Chrysomitris), and also to the Linnets (Linota); the form of its beak scarcely differing from that of the Himalayan Siskin (Chr. spinoides) :" and in XIV, 554, I again alluded to this bird, remarking that the L. sinicus “ agrees in size, and in the Goldfinch-like marking of its wings, with L. xanthogramma of the Andes.” I was led into a mistake, however, in the identification of this Chilian species (as I was informed) with L. xanthogramma ; and have not yet been able to identify the bird in question, probably for want of the necessary works of reference. Its affinities are as I have stated, and it is very nearly allied to the Chinese Greenfinch (L. sinicus) ; but I have not now by me a specimen of the latter, with which to compare it.* Length 5. in.; of wing 3 to 3) in, and tail 13 in. Colour hair-brown above, the interscapularies margined paler, and the crown and nape with greenish-brown ; rump brownish-yellow, passing to siskin-yellow towards the tail-coverts, which latter are pale greyish; wings having the primaries and base of the secondaries marked with bright yellow, as in the Goldfinches, contrasting with the black winglet, and terminal half of the primaries which are tipped with whitish ; secondaries edged and the tertiaries tipped with whitish-grey, the rest of the outer web of the tertiaries brown; under-parts paler brown, tinged with yellow, more especially on the throat, abdomen, and also on the forehead ; towards the vent white ; and the lower tail-coverts pure canary-yellow : tail dusky, with the basal half of all but its middle feathers bright yellow, and slightly edged with greyish-brown: bill pale, darker above; and the legs pale.
In the same collection with the preceding were two examples of a species of Serinus (?), from Peru. Length about five inches, of wing two and five-eighths, and tail two inches. Upper-parts streaky, the feathers centred darker, with hair-brown margins; rump dull siskinyellow, and a faint tinge of the same on the crown and neck, and upon
Can it be the female of L. sinicus? The collection in which two specimens of it occurred did contain some Chinese specimens, together with many from Chili and Peru ; but those from each locality were kept separately, with care, and I was assured that the birls in question were from Chili.
the shoulder of the wing : lores, throat, and under-parts generally, bright canary-yellow, tinged with a light ruddy colour on the breast and flanks : margins of primaries obscure dull yellowish. Bill small and short. This bird can scarcely be the Chrysomitris compestris of Gould, which inhabits the same region ?
Nectarinia Horsfieldi, nobis, XII, 975. I have lately seen a second specimen of this species, from Mussoorie ; so that it is probably peculiar to the N. W. Himalaya.
Iora—? In Ann. Mag. N. II. 1844, p. 42, Mr. Strickland remarks that—“Dr. Horsfield has lately obtained a new Iora equal in size to the small Oriolus xanthonotus ;" which species of Iora I alluded to in XIV, 602. Such a bird the Society has now received from Arracan, where it was obtained by Capt. Phayre. The specimen before me was probably a female, measuring 6 in. in length, the wing 24 in., and tail 21 in. ; bill to gape 1 in.; and tarse in. Colour plain green above, yellow below, brightest on the throat and breast; no white markings on the wings, except a slight white edge to the primaries. If new, I. innotata, nobis. In XV, 44, I suggested that this genus might "perhaps come within the extreme confines of the Meliphagidæ ;” and subsequent observation of the habits of Phyllornis has led me (p. 118, ante), to approximate Iora to that genus, with which I think it should form a particular subfamily of Meliphagidæ (peculiar to Southern Asia and its islands); and Oriolina—to which Mr. Strickland regards Iora as subordinate-I regard as another subfamily of the same major group.
Pycnonotus nigropileus, nobis, n. 8. In XV, 286, I had occasion to offer some remarks on the Bulbouls immediately allied to P. joco8u8 ; and now we have an analogous little group formed by the present species, with P. bengalensis and P. hæmorrhous. The bird now described inhabits the Tenasserim provinces, and merely differs from P. hæmorrhous in having no black on the throat and breast, which are brown with greyish margins to the feathers, like the back; and the whole
nape and back are much paler than in P. hæmorrhous,—the cap alone being black.
Rubigula aberrans (?), nobis, XV, 287 : R. gularis, fæm. (?) A second specimen received from Ceylon entirely resembles that previously described.
Tchitrea affinis, XV, 292. Specimens of Shah Bulbowls from Darjecling are clearly of this species, as shown by the form of the crest, and the much narrower and less lengthened middle tail-feathers than in Tch. paradisi; but the black edgings of the tail-feathers are scarcely more dereloped than in the latter, and it is remarkable that in Malacca specimens these edgings are more developed than in those from Arracan and the Tenasscrim provinces.
Lanius lahtora, XV, 300. To the synonymes of this species should have been added L. burra, Gray, of Ilardwicke's Illustrations, founded on a wretched native drawing, which was evidently intended to represent the ordinary grey Shrike of India.
Tephrodornis affinis, nobis, n. 8. Merely differs from T. pondicerianus (XV, 305), in being greyer, and in wanting the conspicuous whitish supercilium. It is common in Ceylon.
Niltara McGregoriæ, (Burton). The Society has at length received this beautiful little species from Darjeeling: and I have no hesitation in assigning to it, as synonymes, uot only N. fuligiventer, Hodgson, but (as the female) Leiothrix signata, McClelland and Horsfield, vel Niltara auricularis, Hodgson, placed as a Siphia in p. 127, ante. The bird described by Mr. Hodgson as the female, in the India Review,' I, 650, is clearly of another species, being probably his Dinorpha moniliger (p. 127, ante). With the colouring and general structure of its congeners, this bird approaches Muscicapula in its small size, and form of bill; and it much resembles Niltava grandis in its colouring, but has merely the front (instead of the whole cap) ultramarine-blue, and scarcely a trace of this on the shoulder of the wing, -also the anterior half of the inner side of the wing white, instead of black,- and the abdomen dusky-ash passing into white towards the vent.
Its range may now be traced from Simla to Darjeeling, and thence to Assam. The bill of this bird differs greatly from that of N. sundara, but that of N. yrandis is intermediate.
Muscicapula sapphira, nobis, XII, 939; figured in Jerdon's Illustrations of Indian Ornithology. In the female of this species, the wings, tail, and rump, are of the same beautiful deep blue as in the male ; but the head, neck, and interscapularies, are plain brown; throat and foreneck ferruginous, rather paler and much broader than in the male ; and the belly and lower tail-corerts are of the same bluish-white as in the other sex ; axillaries and froe-part of the inner surface of the wing, also pure white. From Darjeeling.
Siphia leucura, (Gm.), p. 125, ante. With respect to the rufous throat of this species, I find that it is assumed by every male at the commencement of the hot weather, or during the month of March ; being obtained by a partial moulting confined to the feathers of the throat. I think that I have seen the same remarked of the European S. parva.
Pratincola leucura, nobis, n. 8. In my notice of this genus (p. 129, ante), I overlooked the present species, which is the representative of Pr. rubicola and of Pr. indica in Seinde. Dimensions of the latter species, and general aspect of the upper-parts as in the former, but the rufous of the breast is confined to a rather small patch, the sides of the breast and the whole abdominal region, with the lower tailcoverts (if not the upper also), being pure white; and the exterior four (if not five) rectrices on either side are wholly white on their inner webs except at tip, the dark colour at tip increasing successively to the outermost feather, which alone has its whole outer web dark, the rest having merely the terminal half of their outer webs dark-coloured. Described from a slightly injured male (with imperfect tail, and its upper coverts wanting), in full summer dress, procured by the late Sir Alexander Burnes in upper Scinde.*
Ianthia flavolivacea, (Hodgson,) p. 133, ante. A finer specimen of this bird than the one previously described, i. e. in fresher plumage, has the upper-parts fulvescent-olive, with the fulvous tinge somewhat stronger towards the tail, and the under-parts dilute rusty, having a faint golden gloss. It has much the aspect of the female Tarsiger chrysæus, Hodg., but is readily distinguished by wanting the yellow at the base of the tail, and by having its under-parts much less yellow. From Darjeeling.
Tesia auriceps, Hodgson, p. 137, ante. This has lately been received by the Society, and it appears to me to be merely a bright old male of T. cyaniventer, Hodgson, having (i. e. the Society's specimen) all its colours more intense than usual, and the cap fine golden-green rather than “golden-yellow," and not contrasting very strongly with the green
of the back. Turdus unicolor, Tickell, Gould, and T. dissimilis, nobis, p. 144, ante. I regarded these birds as distinct, more from deference to the opinions of others than from my own conviction : and now I have procured two
Add Muscicupa lueionensis, var. A, Latham, to the synonymes of Pr. capratu.