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cloister surrounding, on three sides, the inner court of the mosque. This cloister supports four domes on the north and south sides, and six on the east, the part next the entrance being covered with a nearly flat octagonal roof, of superior construction. In the part of the court next this square are three principal tombs, and a secondary one, in a row, built of brick and plastered over, three of men and one of a
The three first have each head-walls about three and a half feet high, with recesses for lamps, and altogether look so modern that it is difficult to believe in the correctness of the tradition which has it that Khan Jehan, the father, and Khan Jehan the son, are both buried here, though it should be remembered that the tomb, still in existence, over the remains of the founder of the Toghluk dynasty, is also of brick. There is no trace of an inscription which could afford the slightest clue to the truth or falsehood of the tradition. On the west side of the court is the main body of the mosque, consisting of a system of arches and domes, supported by six double and eighteen single pillars, including the pillasters against the walls on three sides, There are consequently five arches in front, and three in depth, supporting fifteen domes all, but the centre one, which is about three feet higher than the others, of the same height and dimensions. Round this colonnade, which would be decidedly imposing were the pillars only two or three feet higher, runs an enclosed passage, the use of which it is difficult to explain at present. It is dark and divided in the rear (to the west) being there separated from the mosque by a dead wall into three apartments, the centre one the smallest. In the inner wall of this passage, on either side and to the right and left of the door leading into it from the surrounding cloister, are flights of steps leading to the roof. They are, as usual in all buildings of that time, narrow, but not difficult of access, as is frequently the case. It seems premature at present to attempt any general conclusion on the nature of the buildings erected in the time of Feeroz, and the light they throw on the history of the period, there being so many other contemporaneous structures in the neighbourhood of Dehli, the examination of which must further elucidate the subject, but the following points regarding the Kalin Musjeed, the most perfect specimen of those times remainius, seem worthy of remark.
Ist. The sloping style of the architecture seems peculiarly illustrative of the buildings of that, and earlier periods. The Kootub Minar is a well known instance of this style, as adopted about 100 years before the time of Feeroz, and the conical towers on each side of the entrance to the Kalán Musjeed are, in their general conformity, not unlike the famous Kootub Tower. The sloping pillasters on each side of the main entrance give somewhat of an Egyptian appearance to the front of the building, which is not dissimilar from some of the more ancient remains of Hindoo architecture, the style of which is generally believed to have been derived from the Egyptians.
It will be an interesting subject of future inquiry,--being a question which has not, that we are aware of, been yet decided, whether the Mahomedan conquerors of India preserved the style of architecture of the countries from which they emigrated, or whether they did not imitate to a certain extent the Hindoo buildings which they found in India.
2nd. The very simple kind of column and entablature used in this building as supports to the arches, is a point also very worthy of notice. It consists of one, or in most instances, two upright stones or pillars, standing on a third, with a fourth placed on the top as an entablature. This is one of the most primitive styles of architecture known. The peculiar construction of the arches and domes, the stones of which are held together by the wonderful adhesive qualities of the lime used in those days, without any key stones, has been before remarked upon, and is another characteristic of the Mahomedan Indian buildings of the 14th century.
3rd. It is reasonable to inser that this mosque was built in the midst of a considerable population, and that the present site of Delili, was either a suburb of the then Feerozabad, or if not, a portion of that town itself.
It has been mentioned that the apartments on the basement story are occupied. The tenants pay to the collector of Dehli the monthly sum of Rs. 6-3, of which 6 Rs, are handed over to the attendant Priest appointed by the local authorities who, out of that sum, defrays the expenses of sweeping, and water, and provides the budenees in use by the few frequenters of the mosque, chiefly Affghans residing in the
eighbourhood, to perform their ablutions. The balance of 3 amas per mensem is carried to the credit of the state, which is however, at the expense of any repairs which may be required.
As it is desirable, that a biographical sketch of the founder of any building illustrated should, where possible, accompany the detailed accounts which will, it is hoped, be laid from time to time before the Archeological Society of Dehli, with the view of comparing the architectural with the written records of the times, some account of Khan Jehan, who built the Kalán Musjeed, is here annexed, derived ehiefly from Ferishta. The inscription explicitly mentions that the founder was the son of another Khan Jehan, and we find this assertion supported by the historian, who informs us that the first Jehan was, in the year of the Hijra 754, (A. D. 1349,) two years after the accession of Feeroz to the throne of Dehli, and in the 44th of his life, appointed Viceroy of Dehli, while the Emperor proceeded to Bengal on an expedition against Elias (Ilyas Khaje Sultan Shums-ood-deen Bengara).* This officer, who was subsequently raised to the dignity of Wazeer of the empire, died A. H. 774, (A. D. 1356,) in the 22d of the reign of Feeroz, and was succeeded in his titles and office by his son, (whose name was Jonah Shah, according to the inscription, though that fact is not mentioned by the historian.)* In A. H. 787, the 13th of his Weezarut, and the 35th of his master's reign, it is said that age
* Since the above was written we have been favored by Major M. E. Loftie, 30th N. I., with the following account of Khan Jehan the elder, extracted from the Tabakát Akbaree, which confirms the above, and furnishes still more ample details : Extracts from the Tabakát Akbari, regurding Khán Jahán the elder, the wasir of
Sultán Firúz Shah. “And in the year 754, after having hunted in the district of) Kalánúr, he (Firuz Shah) returned, and, at the time of his return, he laid the foundations of some lofty buildings on the banks of the river Sarasutí. And he conferred upon Shaikh Sadru'd. dín, the son of Shaikh Bahau'd-dín Zakariya, the title of Shaikhu'l-Islam, and, having honoured Malik Kabúl, who was the deputy wazir, with the title of Khán Jabán, he made him the wazír of the empire."*
“And also in the month of Shawál, in the year 754, having invested Khan Jahán with the most ample authority, he (Fíruz Shah) left him in the city (of Dehlí), and departed with a powerful force for Lakhnautí, in order that he might put an end to the tyranny exercised by Ilyás Hájí, who, having assumed the title of Sultán Shamsu'd-dín, and founded (or enlarged) the city of Pandúá, had taken possession of the country as far as the confines of Banáras."
“After that, in the year 760, the Sultán (Firúz Shah) marched towards Lakhnautí, leaving Khán Jahán in Dihlí, as vice regent during his absence.”
“In the year 772,+ Khán Jahán died, and his eldest son, Júnán Shah, received the title of Khán Jahan.”
* According to Ferishta, Khán Jahán was appointed wazír, by Firuz Shah, in the year 752, when that monarch was advancing to the capital from the neighbourhood of Thatha (Tattah) in Sind, where he had been called to the throne on the demise of Sultán Muhammad Taghlik Shah. Sultan Muhammad died on the 21st of Muharram 752, and Firúz Shah arrived at Dihlí on the 2d of Rajab, the same year, having been 158 days upon the journey. On his way, he passed through the city of Ajádhan (also called Pattan), in the province of Multán, where he visited the tomb of the celebrated Muhammadan saint, Shaikh Faridu'd-dín Shakarganj. From Ajúdhan, he moved to Hánsí, and it was upon the march to that city, that Malik Kabúl, waited upon him, and was raised to the digoity of prime minister, with the title of Khán Jahán. (See Ferishta, Bombay edition, p. 260). M. E. L.
Ferishta says 774 (v. Bombay edition), and Dow gives the same date. M. E. L.
and infirmity began to press hard upon Feeroz. “Jehan, the Wuzeer having the sole management of affairs, became very powerful in the empire. The emperor was so much under his direction, in all things, that he had the effrontery falsely to accuse Mahomed, the King's son, of a design against his father's life, in conjunction with several omrahs. He brought the old man firmly to credit this accusation, and obtained his authority to secure the supposed conspiraters.” was sent to seize the Prince, who having previous intelligence of the design against him, began to provide for his security, placing guards, and fortifying himself in his palace. In this situation he remained shut up for some days ; and at last, having obtained leave for his wife to visit the King's Zenana, he put on his armour, went into the close chair, and was carried into the Seraglio. When he discovered himself in that dress, the frightened women ran screaming into the emperor's apartment, and told him that the prince had come in armour with a treasonable design. The Prince having followed them, presented himself to his father, and falling at his feet, told him, with great emotion, that the suspicions he had entertained of him were worse than death itself. That he came, therefore, to receive it from his own hands. But first he begged leave to inform him, that he was perfectly innocent of the villainous charge which the Wuzeer had purposely contrived to pave his own way to the throne. Feeroz, sensible of his son's sincerity, clasped him in his arms, and weeping, told him he had been deceived, and therefore desired him to proceed, as his judgment should direct him against the traitor. Mahomed, upon this, went out from the presence and ordered 12,000 horse to be in readiness. With this body he surrounded the Wuzeer's house that night, who upon hearing of the prince's approach, put Ziffer (governor of Mahoba, lately imprisoned on the plea of his being one of the conspirators with the prince against the emperor) to death, and colleeting his friends, came out to engage him in the street. Upon the first onset the traitor was wounded, and drew back to his house. He fled immediately towards Mewat and the prince seized all his wealth and cut off his adherents. Feeroz, immediately after these transactions, resigned the reins of government into the hands of his son, and abdicated the throne. The prince assumed the name of Mahomed (Naseer-ood-deen-ood Duneea), ascended the throne in the month of Shaban 789, and immediately ordered the Kootba to be read in his own and his father's name.”— Ferishta's History of thindlustan, translated by Dow, Vol. I. pp. 311, 312).
* * * « A party
* It is however in the Tabakát Akbaree, as will be seen in the extract translated by Major Loftie. We find that Ferishta himself also calls him Junah Shah, p. 256,
From this detailed account by the historian it would appear that the Kalán Musjeed was finished by the Wuzeer Khan. Jehan, only two short months, perhaps less, before his treason led to his downfal, his expula sion from the capital, and the loss of all his wealtlı, which fifteen years of unlimited power, under the declining energies of Feeroz, hau doubtless made an object of desire to the prince who expelled him. llis end was the end of most men in disgrace in those days. IIe had, it appears, taken refuge with a chief named Goga. On the appearance, in his district, of Sekunder Khan, a newly appointed governor of Guzrat, who was proceeding through Mewat to take possession of his office, Goga, fearing the resentment of the new emperor, seized Khan Jehan, and sent him bound to Sekunder Khan, who cut off his head, and forwarded it to Dehli. (Ferishta as alore).* It is, therefore,
Here again we are under obligations to Major Loftie for extraets from the Tabakát Akbaree, relating to the career and overthrow of Khan Jehan the younger :
Account of the fall of Khán Jahún the younger, extracted from the Tubukát Akbari.
“ In this year (787), the emperor (Fírúz Shah) was greatly broken by infirmity and. old age, and Khán Jahán, becoming possessed of unlimited authority, was desirous of getting into his hands the emperor's son, the prince Muhammad Khán, together with several of the nobility, such as Daryá Khán, the son of Zafar Khan, Malik Yaakub, Muhammad Hájí, Malik Sama’ud-dín, and Malik Kamálúd-dín, who were friends and well wishers of the prince, and of depriving them of their power. He represented to the emperor, that the prince, in concert with the aforesaid noblemen, medituted a revolt, and Firúz Shah, putting faith in what he said, directed that the whole of those Lords should be arrested. Intelligence of this proceeding having been received by the prince, he absented himself for some days from the presence of his father. Khán Jahan then suinmoned Darya Khán to appear before him, on the pretence of examining the accounts of the district of Mahoba, and (upon his arrival) confined him in his (Khán Juháu's) house. On hearing of this, the prince was filled with apprehension, and waited upon his father,