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3 to 5 flattened scales, pointing outwards, forming a minute longitudinal crest.
Normal colours. Beautiful grass green, lighter beneath, entirely, or partially changeable to light grey, greyish olive, greenish brown, or blackish, sometimes with orange spots, or with indistinct black network; large isolated round spots on the head or back, or the lips, eyelids, or margins round tympanum, momentarily black; sometimes with transversal distant brown bands, particularly on the tail.* Scales of the outside of the limbs and feet edged with brown. Pupil circular; iris brown with a narrow golden ring. II Abit.-Malayan Peninsula, Pinang, Singapore.
Amboyna, Island of Buru, Java, Sumatra. This species is very numerous in the Malayan countries both in the vallies and on the hills. It moves and leaps with great quickness among the branches of trees. The most striking feature is the great power of suddenly changing its colours. The Malayan denomination of this species is “Gruning,” which in Marsden's Dictionary is translated “ a species of lizard, which changes its colour as it is affected by fear or anger ; the cameleon.” No cameleon however appears to inhabit the Malayan countries, but the present lizard passes under that name among the European inhabitants. One of the largest males was of the following dimensions : Length of the head,
0 feet 13 inch. Ditto ditto trunk,
0 39 Ditto ditto tail,
lft. 77 inch. Those of the intestinal canal :
04 The stomach is cylindrical, simply a continuation of oesophagus without fundus, but separated from the small intestines by a valve. In
During life there is no trace of blue, or even bluish green about this lizard, but after death it sometimes acquires this colour from the effects of spirits of wine, to whichi cir cumstance must be attributed the denomination of “ Blue Calotes," Gray, in Griffith's edition of Cuvier, Vol. 9, p. 55.
several dissected it contained nothing but mucus. The length of oesophagus and the stomach together was 19 inch. The anterior part of the small intestines is widened till about a quarter of an inch from the pyloric valve, where ductus coledochus enters. Cæcum is very widened, more so than any other part of the canal, of a crescent shape.
GEN. LOPUYRUS, Dumeril. Head triangular, more or less elongated, shelving in front; orbital edge arched or angular ; nostrils lateral, circular, or oval ; tongue papillary, rounded and very slightly notched at the point; in the upper jaw 5 incisors and 2 canines ; tympanum superficial; skin of the throat lax, forming in some a scarcely perceptible, in others a highly developed pouch, and an angular cross fold in front of the chest ; neck, trunk and tail compressed, with a crest, generally most elevated on the nape of the neck; scales of the trunk rhombic, subimbricate, unequal, (with scattered larger scales) ; femoral pores none.
LOPHYRUS ARMATUS, (Gray.) SYN.-Agama armata, Gray.
Calotes tropidogaster, Cuvier. *
Acanthosaura armata, Gray, Orbital edge slightly angular, with a long spine at its posterior extremity ; no spinous tubercles on the occiput; on each side of the nape of the neck, immediately above the ear, another long spine, surrounded with 5 to 6 shorter ones, at its base, from whence proceed obliquely over the temple and cheek a curved series of 18 larger polygonal, keeled scales ; tympanum thick, circular ; on the neck a crest of 8 to 12 long spines, surrounded with numerous smaller ones at the base; at a short interval the dorsal crest, the anterior 5 to 6 spines of which are very long, the rest rapidly decreasing towards the tail ; gular pouch very small, not toothed, with scales of equal size ; tail subtriangular, with a toothed crest above.
Above. Head chestnut; trunk and limbs blackish green, with a black transversal band in the interval between the cervical and dorsal crests, continued over the shoulders, with numerous pale yellowish white, black-edged, rounded spots, assuming the shape of transversal bands on the limbs and the tail ; the larger single scales on the sides, limbs and tail clear sky-blue; from the orbit over the lip 5 to 6 radiat
* By mistake : Calotes lepidogaster, Régne anim. 1829. T', ii. p. 39.
ing, black lines. Beneath yellowish white. Pupil circular, iris brown, with a narrow golden ring. Habit.—Pinang, Singapore,
Cochin China. At Pinang this species appears to be very local, and not numerous : two individuals examined were obtained from spice plantations in the valley. They were very active and fierce, possessed in a slight degree the power of changing the ground-colour to a lighter hue, and in captivity refused food and water. In a female were found 13 eggs of a yellowish white colour, of an oval shape, inches in length. The stomach contained fragments of leaves and twigs, and a quantity of earth and lime. The latter probably ofiginated from the lime water, with which the spice-trees are copiously sprinkled, to secure them against the attack of insects. The dimensions of the lizard were :
Length of the head,
Entire length,.. 109
04 The stomach capacious, with thick parietes. The first portion of Duodenum is much widened till within half an inch from Pylorus, where Ductus coledochus enters. Cæcum is of a crescent-shape, much widened, as well as the large intestine.
GEN. DILOPHYRUS, Gray. Head four-sided. Forehead rather concave, face-ridge high. Eyebrows rounded. Occiput with 3 or 4 larger tubercles on each side.
Parotids unarmed. Nape and back with a crest of high compressed scales, with series of smaller scales at their base. The throat rather lax,* with a cross fold behind,+ extending up the front of the shoulders. Scales of the back small, rhombic, equal; of the belly rather
* Add : with a compressed pouch, minutely toothed in front.
larger, smooth. Tail compressed, keeled and toothed above, with 2 series of elongated keeled scales beneath. Femoral and preanal scales
DiLOPHYRUS GRANDIS, Gray. (Pl. XX.) ILABIT.- Pinang Ilills.
Rangoon. As the only published characters of this species leave its identity with the Malayan somewhat doubtful, they are here preposed.
“ Olive green; sides white spotted, beneath whitish ; tail blackbandeil; head with lines of rather larger scales ; crest very high, formed of broad compressed close-set scales, with 3 or 4 series of scales on each side of the base, interrupted over the shoulders.” (Gray: Catalogue of the Specimens of Lizards, &c. p. 239.)
Form. The head is elongated, four-sided pyramidal, its greatest height and breadth being equal, and less than one half of the length. The muzzle is narrow, rounded, depressed. The upper surface of the head is very sloping, with a narrow furrow between the arched orbital parietes; the forehead depressed or concave. The scales are polygonal, keeled ; those of the margin of the orbits and forehead larger, imbricate, forming a sharp ridge ; four similar scales form a short ridge in the centre of the forehead, close to the muzzle. Behind the orbit, over tympanum, and on each side of the nape of the neck are similar short, oblique ridges, each composed of 5 larger pointed tubercular scales. The rostral shield is very broad, narrow, triangular ; the mental, is much smaller, pointed, triangular, with two large polygonal scales on each side. The upper jaw is covered with 26, the lower with 24 elongated, narrow, rectangular scales.
14.14 Incis. Canin.
14.14 31 The incisors and anterior molars are very small ; the latter gradually increasing in size, flat, sharply edged, bluntly tricuspidate. The tongue is thick, flattened, very slightly notched in front, the anterior half spongy, the posterior with large backwards pointed papillæ. The nostrils are nearly circular, pierced in a large oval scale, in front of which 3 scales intervene between the rostral. The eyes are large, sunk in the orbits; the pupil circular, black; the iris blue with golden