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just been completed, or rather the third or last true molars were cutting the gums at the epoch of the animal's death.* Our three other specimens are young of different ages.
Of the genus Hylobates, or Gibbon, we have a particularly fine series of specimens, though, with one exception only, they are referrible to but two species.
The exception is the fine pale female of H. leuciscus, F. Cuv. described in XIII, 465, which I procured with some other Javanese specimens at auction.
Of the Hoolock (H. hoolock, Harlan), we have seven fine mounted specimens, exemplifying the variation to which this species in common with other Gibbons) is subject; besides a very pale living adult female with dark cheeks, throat, and chest, and white frontal band as usual, presented by Capt. Tickell : all the others are mounted from fresh specimens, received chiefly from the Barrackpore menagerie ; but another pale adult female was presented alive by Mr. Heatly. Of the considerable number of individuals which I have now examined of this species, the males have been, almost without exception, deep black, with the white frontal band more or less developed, both as regards extent and the purity of the white : in general, but not always, this band is divided in the middle; and rarely it is of a dark grey colour, not contrasting very strikingly with the black. Females seem never to be of a deep black, but vary from brownish-black to whitish-brown, devoid however in the latter instance of the fulvous tinge which is observable in pale specimens of H. lar. In general, they are paler on the crown, back, and outside of limbs, darker in front, and much darker on the cheeks and chin. They are of every
intermediate shade to the extremes mentioned; and do not appear to alter in
This valuable specimen arrived at the Museum at most unfortunate time, when I was just recovering from a severe illness, and was passing my convalescence at the house of a friend at some distance, unable to attend office. Upon hearing of its presentation, however, I lost no time in repairing to the Society's rooms, but reached them too late for any useful purpose, beyond that of superintending the setting up of the skin When the animal was alive, I often saw her; and she appeared to be always mild and good-tempered. The adult female Orang-utan which Sr. Del' Casse exhibited some month's ago in Calcutta, was a much larger and more powerful beast, and had quite a different expression of countenance. She was also, on the whole, good-tempered, but uncertain aud dangerous to handle, which prevented my taking her dimensions. I consider her to be of the race termed Mius Rambi by Mr. Brooke. A remarkable trait of this individual was her decided sense of pudur : however she might lie or roll about, she never failed to use one foot for purposes of concealment, holding therein a small piece of board generally, or in default of this a wisp of straw, or whatever she could seize on for the purpose. The general colour of Sr. Del'Casse's animal was very dark, with much blackish hair pendent on the sides of the face, and the whole face was dark, excepting the eyelids.
colour through life. The H. choromandus of Mr. Ogilby is founded on a Hoolock of intermediate hue, in the collection of the Zoological Society. I may add that we have three skeletons of Hoolocks of different ages, one only being as yet mounted.
Of H. lar, the common Gibbon of the Tenasserim provinces and Malayan peninsula, (replaced in Arracan, Sylhet, and Assam, by H. hoolock,) we have as many as twelve specimens of all ages and colouring; for seven of which, from Malacca, we are indebted to Mr. Frith and Mr. E. Linstedt.* The whole of these, and eleven other Malacca specimens lately received by Mr. Frith, are more or less dark, varying from deep brown to brownish-black, with the back generally paler (more or less so), and sometimes variegated with whitish patches : occasionally the rump is whitish in dark individuals : and the hands and feet are ful vous-white, rarely much suffused with brown. The white ring surrounding the face varies a good deal in development; in one of our specimens being almost obsolete, except on the chin : and some again have much more white on the chin and throat than others. The only pale specimen of this Gibbon which we possess from Malacca, is a very young male that was presented alive by Mr. M'Clelland :t but in the Tenasserim provinces, the pale variety seems greatly to predominate (if not to the exclusion of the dark varieties, at least in some localities). The Rev. J. Barbe presented us with adults of both sexes, together with the new-born young, and one a little older, from Ye; all being of a fulvous-white colour, palest in the old male; and another Tenasserim adult female, received from the Barrackpore menagerie, is of the same light hue. It is remarkable that while Mr. Barbe's smallest Tenasserim specimen, about the size of a Marmozet, is densely clad with long hair throughout, one of the same size (but still younger) from Malacca, has the belly and inside of the thighs entirely nude of hair, the throat, breast, inside of arms, and outside of thighs, very scantily clad, and the pelage of the head and back is very much shorter and less dense than in the other ; a greater difference than so slight a disparity of age seems sufficient to account for : indeed, our young pale specimen from Malacca, though considerably older than either, is much less densely clad than the infantile Tenasserim specimen.
Of the Monkeys with a simple stomach, and cheek-pouches, the largest and most highly typical are the African Baboons. We have only a young specimen of
* Mr. Frith has since favored us with another skin of a mature female, remarkable for having a small supplementary nipple half an inch below the ordinary left nipple.
+ This was brought to Calcutta by Capt. Charleton, who had also pale adults from Malacca, and informed me that the pale race (which he considered distinct) kept in separate flocks from the dark race. Dr. Cantor has also pale Malayan specimens.
Cynocephalus porcarius, (Boddaërt.) The common Cape Baboon, procured dead from a dealer.
The most nearly allied Asiatic species constitute the division Papio apud Ogilby, which name is however assigned by Mr. Gray to the African Mandrill and Drill. Acknowledging the group as Mr. Ogilby established it, it seems that Inuus, Geoffroy (applied by that naturalist to the Magot of Barbary), has the best claim to be retained as its appellation. Two minor groups are comprised, viz. the Silenus of Mr. Gray, from which surely cannot be separated I. arctoides, I. nemestrinus, and I. niger ; while I. rhesus is more allied to I. sylvanus.* The Society's present specimens are as follow :
I. silenus, (L.) Very fine examples of the male and female; the former purchased (dead), the latter received from Barrackpore. Also a fine mounted skeleton of an adult male. This species of Monkey is stated by all authors to be indigenous to Ceylon ; but I have the authority of Dr. R. Templeton of Colombo for stating that it does not inhabit that island, though tame specimens are often taken there. In Travancore and Cochin, it occurs abundantly in a state of nature.
I. arctoides (?, Is. Geoff.): described, with a mark of doubt, as I. nemestrinus in XIII, 473. Adult male, and a young specimen, from Arracan; presented by Capt. Phayre.
I. nemestrinus, (L.) Nearly full grown male, purchased (dead); adult female, presented by Mr. E. Linstedt ; and the Society possesses the skeleton of an adult male, and also a living male. Common in the Malayan peninsula, Sumatra, &c.
I. rhesus, (Lin.): Pithex oinops, Ilodgson. Specimens of large adult male, and of female with young at the breast, procured in the Soonderbuns; also a younger adult male ; and a huge and monstrously obese male, of which the carcass was picked up in the public street and brought to the Museum. Common in the Bengal Soonderbuns, Assam, &c.
The name Macacus should apply typically to the Macaque of Buffon, and various allied species which are scarcely (if at all) separable from the Mangabeys of Africa, to which M. carbonarius especially approximates, with its dark face and pale eyelids.
M. cynomolgus, (Lin.) Adult male, purchased alive: female, from Malacca, presented by Mr. Frith; ditto, from Ye, presented by the Rev. J. Barbe; young, from the Nicobar Islands, presented by Capt. Lewis; ditto, from Timor, presented by Mr. W. Benson. Common in the Malay countries.
Of the whole of the species here mentioned (excepting arctoides), I am familiar with the living adults.
M. carbonarius, F. Cuv. Living adult male, purchased : young, presented by Capt. Abbott. Common in Arracan, and quite distinct from the preceding species.*
M. radiatus, Desm. Living adult male; and stuffed specimen of a nearly full grown female, purchased (dead). Common in the peninsula of India, and replaced in Ceylon by the allied M. sinicus.
Of the African genus Cercopithecus, we have only C. sabæus, (Lin.), v. C. chrysurus, nobis, XIII, 477. A large old specimen ; and a younger one, from the Cape de Verd Islands, purchased alive.
We now proceed to the division of long-tailed Monkeys, with a sacculated stomach, and devoid of cheek-pouches, comprising the Asiatic genus Presbytis (vel Semnopithecus), and the nearly allied African genus Colobus. Of the latter we possess no example; but of the former a tolerably rich series.
Pr. entellus, (F. Cuv.). Adult male and female, and two young of different ages ; procured in the neighbourhood. We have also skeletons of adults of both sexes, not yet set up. This, the true Entellus Monkey, or common Hoonuman of Bengal, I have never yet seen wild on the eastern side of the river Hoogly, and its absence has often been remarked on the Cossimbazar island (formed by the two chief confluents of the Hoogly and the main stream of the Ganges); while it abounds almost everywhere on the western or right bank of the Hoogly and up the Ganges, extending its range to Central India, and to Cuttack. I am assured also of its occurrence in Assam ; but have never seen a specimen from that province. This animal is of a pale sullied straw-colour, more or less tinged with a peculiar chocolat-au-lait brown on the back and limbs; having constantly black hands and feet, and no trace of crest on the vertex. It is one of the commonest of Bengal animals, and I have never observed it to vary, so as to approximate in any degree to the following species.
Pr. priamus, Elliot, XIII, 470. The common Hoonuman of the Coromandel coast and of Ceylon, and which Mr. Jerdon informs me abounds, together with Pr. hypoleucos, in the vicinity of Tellichery on the Malabar coast of the peninsula of India. A nearly full grown female, presented by Walter Elliot, Esq. In this species, the pale chocolat-au-lait tint spreads over the whole back and outside of the limbs, to a much greater extent than is ever seen on Pr. entellus ; appearing also upon
crown, which exhibits likewise a compressed high vertical crest, resembling that of several of the Malayan species; and the hands and feet are whitish, i. e. clad above with whitish hairs. The hairs of the pelage of this and of the two following species are straight, and not sinuous as in Pr. entellus.
* I have been keeping both alive for these two or three years past, adult males; and have seen and had several other live specimens of M. curbonarius.
Of Pr. anchises, Elliot, XIII, 470, I can only exhibit a skin sent on loan by that gentleman. This is the common species of the elevated table-land of the peninsula of India ; and is remarkable for the great length of its hair generally, that upon its toes imparting the appearance of a Spaniel's paw,
Pr. hypoleucos, nobis, X, 839, XII, 170, XIII, 470 : Semnopithecus Dussumieri, Schinz : S. Johnii, var., Martin. An adult male, from Travancore, presented by Dr. W. Coles of Madras. This species abounds along the range of the Malabar ghats. Vide Pl. XXVI, fig. 1.
Pr. albocinereus, (Desm). Adult male, nearly full grown female, and small young; presented by R. W. G. Frith, Esq. : mature female, presented by E. Lindstedt, Esq. All from Malacca. In the preceding members of this genus, constituting with others a subgroup peculiar to India proper, the hair of the crown radiates from a centre, a little behind the brows: in the present Malayan species, there are two such centres, placed laterally near together; and the hair of the occiput is somewhat lengthened and directed upwards, terminating at the vertical crest which it aids to produce. Colour dusky greybrown above, more or less dark, with black hands and feet, and white underparts and inside of limbs, as also great part of the haunch and thigh externally : crown generally blackish, with admixture of white in the two radiating centres; and the upward-directed occipital hair is concolorous with the back, or somewhat paler. Tail generally blackish except towards its base. The small young
resemble the adults, except in having a well-defined pale greyish band on each side, separating the dusky hue of the back from the white of the under-parts, and terminating in the white haunch. In this species, the eye-lids appear to form the only wbite portion of the face, the skin of the lips being dark.
Pr. Phayrei, nobis : referred to Pr. obscurus in XIII, 466, where described. Skin of an adult, presented by Capt. Phayre: two specimens of the young, presented alive by Capt. Abbot. Common in Arracan. This much resembles the preceding species in its colouring, but differs from it in many particulars. There are no radiating centres on the crown; but a much longer and less dense, thin and compressed, vertical crest : the occipital hair is not lengthened, and is directed downwards: the white of the under-parts scarcely extends upon the inside of the limbs, and spreads much less on the sides, which are dark like the back; and the haunches and thighs are uniformly coloured with the back: the whiskers also are dark, and very long, concealing the ears in front; whereas in Pr. albocinereus the ears are wholly visible : lastly, the tail is generally more or less albescent to near its tip; and the lips are conspicuously white, and well furnished with white moustachial hairs above, and similar hairs below. Vide Pl. XXVI, fig. 3.