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in the Rescript of the Roman emperors relating to the articles impor: ed into Egypt from the east, and contained in the Digest of the Roma. Law, Lib. XXXIX. title XV. 5. 7.*
Lign Aloe. --The fragrant wood called Lign Aloe or Aguru in Sanscri is the Ahaloth of Scripture, from which term the name of Agallochu given to it in the Digest, is derived. Hence the modern appellation Agal or Eagle wood which is sometimes applied to it. Aquillaria Aga loeha, whieh yields this substanee, is common in the mountainous countr between Sylhet and Assam. Speaking of the latter country, Mahome Cazim observes :"the mountains of Nanac(the Naga hills or Nazaviciur of Ammianus Marcellinus) produee plenty of Lign Aloes, which a societ of natives import every year into Assam and barter for salt and grain.'. The fragrance of Lign Aloe is supposed to be the result of a disease state of the centre layers of the wood, which is converted into a resinou: matter. At Sylhet an essence or attar is extracted from it, which, ir former days when this article was in great demand, was sold for its weight in gold. Both the wood and the essence or attar are purchased by Moghul merchants and are sent to Jidda and Bussora. The attar of Lign Aloe, which is of the consistence of thick oil and of a dark brown colour, appears to be the substance called Indian Cinnabar by Arrian. Dr. Vincent remarks in speaking of Arrian's account of Socotra : “it is remarkable that aloes are not mentioned by the author of the Periplus but he notices particularly the drug called Indian cinnabar which exudes from a certain species of trees. Dr. Vincent says that the confounding of Cinnabar and Dragons blood was a mistake of ancient date, and concludes that the latter is the article that is referred to.”+ It would seem, however, that the substance, which Arrian alludes to, was not the produce of Socotra, but of India, and it is likely, therefore, that the attar of Lign Aloe is, from its colour, the substance that is meant by the article Cinnabar which exudes from certain trees. It was no doubt i imported into Socotra from India. Lign Aloe is highly esteemed as a perfume throughout the east, and is employed for various purposes, as incense in temples, to fumigate apartments, cloths, &c. The Jews used it at their interments.
* Quære, Tit. IV.? where a long and highly interesting catalogue of oriental imports is given.-Eds.
t Vincent's Periplus.
aper Rhinoceros's Horn.—This appears to be the article which is mentioncond under the term Pwokepws in the Periplus. The Rhinoceros's horn
was considered an antidote to poison, and was, therefore, highly valued
in ancient times. These horns were no doubt exported from Assam her where the Rhinoceros abounds. The horn of the Rhinoceros of Bengal ond nos considered superior to that of every other country of Asia. Lin19 schoten remarks that this was owing “to the herbs which Bengala
yieldeth, for in other places they were not near the price of these." retu The two Mahomedan travellers of the 9th century state that the biur Chinese purchased the horns of Rhinoceroses in the kingdom of Rami, ciety in the fens of which country they are said to abound (the marshes of im" | Bengal) and that they adorned their girdles with these, some of which
were valued at 3000 pieces of gold in China.
Tabasheer.—This is supposed by some to be the pedi kalapuivov of the
Periplus. It is designated the sugar or manna of bamboos. It occurs its
in the works of the old travellers under the name of Spodiom de Canna. Bed
Barett mentions it as an export from Bengal to Goa in the 16th century.
congealeth in certain canes (bamboos) whereof I found many in Pegu, s of which I made my house there, because as I said before they make
their houses there of woren canes like mats.” Odoricus, who travelled in
India in the early part of the 14th century, speaks of canes named “ Cas15 sam, of which they make sails (masts) for ships, and in which are found
certain stones, one of which stones whosoever carrieth it about with him cannot be wounded with any iron, and therefore the men of the
muntry for the most part carry such stones wherever they go.” (Hakhe be
lyut's voyages, p. 162.)
Dacca, 16th April, 1846.
SIR WM. Joxes mentions
“the similarity of some proper names on the borders of Indin to those of Arabia, as the river Arabius, a place called Araba, a people named Aribes or Arabies and another called Sabi." (Discourse on
Words allied to the latter term occur in
. sabæan commercial settlements. Supara or Sippara (the Sefareh of Arabian
the Arabs, As. Res. Vol. ii. p. 7.)
Ptolemy's Geography of the Conntries of India : and were perhaps the names of
moi : mais de nouvelles ? relations m'apprennent qu'il n'y a point de ville de nom." The site of Bengala appears to have been confounded with that Chittagong about the beginning of the 18th century. In some of the Fren geographical Dictionaries of that period, these towns are described as gan sur la rivière de Cosmin vis-a-vis Bengal que plusieurs geographes co fondent avec elle. Quelques uns ont cru que Bengale n'est autre q Chatigan.” Dict. de Lamartine. That they were different places, however, evident from the circumstance of Bengala, Chatigan and Satigan being seve ally mentioned as the chief emporia of Bengal. From the city of Benga being described as situated on an island and opposite to Chittagong, Sunde would seem to be the locality that is referred to; on the other hand, Sir' Herbert mentions this island, but does not allude to any town upon it, whil he particularly specifies Chatigan, Bacola, Serripore, and Sonargong as tl principal towns of the eastern part of Bengal. In a work entitled “L Mercatoria,” written about the middle of the last century, Dacca is mentione as identical with Bengala. The mention by Morery of the latter having bee frequented by Portuguese, Dutch, English, and French, seems to countenang this opinion; but on the other hand the insular situation of Bengala, and i being placed opposite to Chittagong prove that Dacca is not the town that referred to. Rennell, speaking of this city, remarks “no traces of it now exis It is described as being near the eastern mouth of the Ganges, and I conceiv the site of it has been carried away by the river.”
Note on an Image of Budha found at Sherghatti, &c. by Capt. KITTOE
I have the pleasure herewith to transmit a sketch of a small image of Budha at this place, and said to have been brought froin a hill neai Gaya.
It will be observed to differ in some respects from the ordinary form of these idols ; it appears to hold a cup for offerings, instead of the right hand resting open on the knee, as generally found, but it is common in this district, as well as other forms which I propose treating upon on a future occasion. It will be observed that on the right beneath the “
Sinhasun, throne, is represented a monkey? on his hind legs, holding an offering in his fore paws; on the left, the same animal appears to be jumping down a well. This I have also seen on a fine figure of Budha at Budh Gaya, given in Buchanan, but badly drawn. Probably Lieut. Latter, who has already offered the Society some useful observations on Budhist emblems,