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d'Hist. Nat., VII, 26.* Length about 9 inches; of wing 64 inches, and tail 3 inches: tarse 1 inch. Plumage of the upper-parts somewhat rufescent clay-brown, with large round white spots on the feathers, more or less concealed, and wholly so on those of the middle of the back: coronal feathers with medial whitish streaks: face white; some of the radiating feathers on the sides of the beak terminating in black vibrissæ : chin, throat, lower tail-coverts, and the tibial and tarsal plumes, white, also the fore-part of the under-surface of the wing: a longitudinal broad streak on each feather of the breast and abdomen: on the hindneck, the white so predominates upon the feathers as to give the appearance of a half-collar: the great wing-feathers have broad incomplete pale bands, disposed alternately on their two webs; and the middle tail-feathers have a double row of semi-alternating pale spots, passing into dull bands on the outer tail-feathers: beak (in the dry specimen) whitish; and claws pale horn-colour]. Common among the rocks and ruins of old Candahar.
19. Upupa epops, Lin. The common Hoopoe. 'Hoodhood' of India. This bird was scarce and only a summer visitor. I saw it, however, in the valley of Pisheen on the 6th March, when returning to this country.
20. Coracias garrula, Lin. This bird is very common during the summer months, but departs by the end of autumn: it arrives at Candahar in the middle of April. [Burnes obtained it in the Moultan]. Persian-"Subz Kullag;" Pushtoo-" Sheen Tootee."
21. Alcedo ispida, Lin. Found on the banks of rivers all the year through.
22. Merops apiaster, Lin. European Bee-eater. These birds appeared at Candahar in the beginning of April, and left in the beginning of autumn.
23. M. persica, Lin. These came in with the last. [Two specimens in the Society's collection were obtained by Sir A. Burnes at Buhawalpore.]
24. Cuculus canorus, Lin. My specimens were shot at Quetta in April. The variety, C. hepaticus, was also obtained there in the same month.
The work cited is not accessible here; but I have some impression that the species referred to is a small Athene (v. Noctua).-E. B.
25. Cypselus apus, (L.) Common Swift. As in England, this bird is later in appearing than the Swallow, and departs before it. It is common during the summer, coursing and screaming as they chase each other rapidly through the air. They were first seen on the 20th February [!].
26. Corvus corax (?), L. The Raven. Very common in Afghanistan, especially during the winter. I have marked it doubtful, because I have no specimen to refer to, but all its measurements, &c., agreed with Fleming's description; "Kargh."
27. C. frugilegus, L. The Rook. Found in large flocks during winter in Candahar, searching for food in the ploughed lands. The base of the bill is denuded as in the European bird. They arrive in February, which is there the coldest month, and depart in March.
28. Fregilus graculus, (L.) The Chough. This is abundant during the winter months, arriving in November from the hills to the northward, and departing again about March. At Girishk on the Helmund they sometimes appear in hundreds about sunset, coming from the hills when the heats of day are passed, and settling among the swampy beds along the river, where they procure abundance of mollusca. Called 'Tsagh.'
29. Pica caudata, (L.) European Magpie. Is found all the year round from Quettah to Girishk, and is very common.-They breed in March, and the young are fledged by the end of April. The nest is like that of the European bird; and all the manners of the Afghan Magpie are precisely the same; they may be seen at all seasons. [The admeasurements of an Afghanistan Magpie are given in XV, 26. Capt. Hutton's specimen is larger, the wing of it measuring 8 inches, and the tail 1 foot; but, on comparing it with several European specimens, there can be no doubt of the specifical identity.*]
The wing of Capt. Hutton's specimen is thus as long as that of my P. media, XIII, 393; but the latter species is distinct, and seems to be identical with Mr. Gould's subsequently named P. sericea, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1845, p. 2, from Chusan. I was positively assured that P. media was shot in the Chilian Andes; but as some Macao birds were purchased with the S. American collection which yielded P. media, I strongly suspect that these were not, in all instances (vide note to p. 471, ante), kept so distinct as was asserted, but that two or three of them had become mixed up with the S. American specimens. If I am right in this conjecture, there are now before me three well marked species of Asiatic Magpies,-viz. P. bottanensis, Ad Delessert, (v. megaloptera, nobis,) P. media, nobis, (v. sericea, Gould,) and the European P. caudata, (L.), from Afghan
30. Sturnus indicus, Hodgson [vulgaris, Lin.] Arrives in the winter months only, and departs in spring.
31. St. unicolor, Marmora. These were far more numerous than St. indicus, and inclined to keep separate from them; the flocks being sometimes without a single spotted bird among them. Of five specimens in my possession, all are like those I send for inspection, but in life the bill is brown, not yellow. St. indicus remains only during the coldest months and departs as spring approaches; whereas the present species builds in the spring at Candahar, laying 7 or 8 blue eggs, and the young are fledged about the first week in May.*
32. Pastor roseus, (L.) 'Goolabi Mynah' of India. These birds arrive at Candahar in immense flocks in the spring, but disappear with the mulberries which they devour greedily. Their stay is very short. [The same is remarked by Vigne, who, from observation, states it to visit Persia, Afghanistan, and parts of India, in the mulberry season.] 33. Passer indicus, Jardine, and Selby, [p. 470, ante]. Common in Afghanistan, and does not differ from the Indian Sparrow.
34. P. [hispaniolensis, (Tem.)!] Is found all the year through, and builds both in houses and trees. I formerly mistook this for the Tree Sparrow, P. montanus, (L.) [The occurrence of this N. African Sparrow, and of Sturnus unicolor (another common species of Barbary), in Afghanistan, is exceedingly. remarkable: but I am as satisfied of the correctness of these identifications as can be, without actual comparison with African specimens.]
35. Gymnoris [petronius, (L.)] Arrives at Candahar in the latter end of April, and departs in autumn; it was far from common there, though probably among the gardens on the Helmund they were more plentiful. It frequents trees [like G. flavicollis of India].
36. [Carpodacus crassirostris, n. s. (p. 476, ante).] Found at Quetta in spring.
37. Carduelis caniceps, Vigors. Common at Quetta and Candahar in winter and spring.
38. [Loxia curvirostra, (L.) Of this I have seen a living specimen, besides skins, from Afghanistan.]
39. Emberiza [icterica, Eversh.] This bird arrives at Candahar in
* Vide Mr. Drummond's Notice of this species in Barbary.-Ann. Mag. N. H,. XVI, 104.-E. B.
the beginning of April, and departs in autumn. considerable flocks at Neemuch during summer.
It is likewise seen in
40. [E. Buchanuni, nobis, XIII, 957.] Found at Candahar in summer. 41. [Melanocorypha torquata, n. s. (p. 476, ante).] This bird is a winter visitor, and is said to come from Bokhara: the Afghans keep
them in cages.
42. [Alauda arvensis, (?), L. A bad figure among the Burnes drawings' seems to refer to this species, as occurring in Afghanistan. Mr. Hodgson sent it from Nepal, by the name A. dulcivox.]
43. [Calandrella brachydactyla, (Tem.)] Found in flocks at Candahar in winter.
Certhilauda chendoola, (Franklin;) referred by Mr. G. R. Gray to Alauda cristata, Lin. Very common during winter in Afghanistan and Scinde: it is likewise abundant in ail the north-western provinces of India.
45. Motacilla alba [vera], Lin. Found during the spring months. 46. M. boarula, Lin. Not uncommon at Candahar during the autumn, winter, and spring months; but departs when the great heats of summer set in.
47. Budytes citreola, (Pallas.) Winter and spring.
48. B. melanocephala, Savi. In spring also.
49. Myiophonus Temminckii, Vigors. Shot in December near Candahar, and identical with the Himalayan bird.
Merula vulgaris, Ray. The Blackbird. I saw one specimen only of this bird, which was a female, agreeing in every respect with the description of the European species. It was captured in the fruitgardens on the Argandab river, near Candahar, in December. [I also have seen a female Blackbird from Afghanistan, which I considered to be M. vulgaris.]
51. Turdus atrogularis, Tem.
52. Pratincola caprata, (L.)
Dadur, Quetta, Candahar.
Ruticilla tithys, (L.). This is a common bird, and found all the year through. [Non vidi.]
54. Cyanecula suecica, (L.) Is a summer visitor at Candahar. (No red spot on the blue throat!)
[Calamoherpe agricola, Jerdon. Obtained by Sir A. Burnes
56. Lanius excubitor, Lin. Is very common around Candahar. This, and not L. lahtora, is the bird I formerly mentioned as seizing the Mustela sarmatica by the nose (vide XIV, 348, on Afghan mammalia). It is chiefly seen in winter.
57. Lanius erythronotus [affinis]. Is also common at Candahar. [Two specimens forwarded by Capt. Hutton resemble L. erythronotus, Vigors, in size, but L. caniceps, nobis (XV, 302), in colouring.*]
58. Hirundo rustica, Lin. Chimney-Swallow. Was first seen on the wing at Candahar on the 8th February, 1840, and 5th February, 1841. -They are abundant throughout the summer months, and build in the open rooms, in temples, &c. They retire in October. The advent and departure both depend upon the mildness of the seasons, so that they are sometimes later, sometimes earlier, than above stated. It is identical with the English Swallow. I have seen them on the wing when the thermometer stood no higher than 36°.-On the 8th February, 1840, when I saw the first Swallow of that year, there had been hard frost and ice during the night, but the morning was fine and sunshiny. On the 16th of that month, the thermometer stood at 38°, and on the 17th again at 36°; yet Swallows were twittering and on the wing, coursing after insects, which are abundant at that season. This fact however would seem to argue that migration does not take place with these birds so much from a dread of encountering cold, as because their natural food begins to fail them in the autumnal season. But where do they migrate to, for we have them at Candahar precisely at the same seasons as in England? Do they travel to the Eastern Isles, or to the regions of Southern Africa, or where ? I have seen another species at Mussoorie also on the wing on the 20th February, 1842, when frost and ice were on the ground, though the morning was fine and sunshiny.
59. H. riparia, (?) Lin. A small grey Swallow was seen near Quetta in March; I observed several on the wing, near the western entrance of the Bolan Pass,-greyish-brown above, white beneath; tail squared. Apparently less than H. urbica. [Specimens of H. riparia (vera) are sent by Captain Hutton from the banks of the Sutlej.]
L. caniceps occurs abundantly in the same localities as L. nigriceps, Franklin, and without intermingling, so far as I have seen, and the latter occurs together with L. erythronotus in the sub-Himalayan region; but Lord A. Hay procured a specimen at Benares (XV, 303), which is just intermediate to L. erythronotus and L. nigriceps.—E.B. + I have never seen H, rustica (vera) from the Oriental Archipelago.—E. B.