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latter evidently made by the separation of regularly stratified layers. The last thing that might be expected of such a dismal-colored and monotonously rounded hill, is that it should be composed within of the purest ice.
The cliffs that form the immediate bounds of the valley where the Glacier lies, are of no great height; but the mountains of which they are the foot, rise many thousand feet above them, though with much monotony of appearance. Many grassy slopes are still seen considerably above the Glacier; but bare rock and snow much predominate, and are soon left in sole possession of these inhospitable regions. Two peaks* which rise, one to the N. East and the other to the N. West of the valley, probably to a height of 20,000 feet above the sea, are fiue objects in themselves, and the frozen snow on their summits shines gloriously in the sun but they are not sufficient to prevent the general impression from the scene being one of disagreeable monotony, and of desolation complete indeed, but without sublimity.
The Glacier is formed by the meeting of two ice streams, from gorges, one coming from the north-west and the other nearly from the east, which meet about 2 miles above the source of the river.
The feeder from the north-west is larger than that from the east, and its surface is at a considerably higher level, for some hundred yards below their first junction.-It descends with a great inclination, entirely filling the gorge down which it comes, in what Professor Forbes aptly terms a cascade of ice. It assumes the general appearance of a confused mass of irregular steps, which are again broken up transversely into peaks of every shape. The west side of this cascade continues nearly in its original direction, after having passed the point A, (see the sketch) below which the Glacier bends sharply to the S. W., and in this way completely crosses the Glacier. The steps in which it falls however also gradually change their direction, so as to
The peak on the N. West is the most easterly of the three smaller peaks, which are seen from Almorah below Nunda Devee. That on the N. East, is the point at the end of the range that descends from Nundakot to the North, and appears on its left from Almorah. Between these peaks is the pass called after Mr. Trail, over which he went into Joohar, or the valley of the Goree. It is perhaps rather gratuitous to call this passage a pass, as no one has gone over it since, and certainly never will go unless from curiosity. To the right of the N. E. peak is another depression in the range, over which, I was told Mr. Trail attempted to go but failed.
remain nearly perpendicular to the general current of ice. The transition to the regular level ice is very sudden, and begins much higher up on the west, than on the east side; the sudden change of direction in the Glacier round the point, A, evidently producing much the same sort of effect in breaking the current of ice and giving it a smooth surface, as would have been observed under similar circumstances in running water. Near the foot of this ice fall, (beyond which I did not ascend the Glacier,) the steps were observed to be in the form given in Fig. 5, having their tops considerably overhanging. A small tributary, also descending in cliffs of ice, joins the main Glacier from a ravine on its east side not far above the point A. Beyond it I was unable to see owing to the sudden bend in the glacier's direction.
The feeder from the east is formed by the union of two smaller Glaciers, one coming down from the N. E. the other from the S. E.; the latter is the larger of the two, and descends in ice cliffs to some little distance below the rocky point which intercepted my view of its upper parts. The N. E. tributary is not so steep, its surface as far as I could see being continuous, excepting immediately at its union with the other, where it seems to be a good deal broken up. I did not go on to any of these Glaciers, and describe them as they appeared from the upper parts of the united Glacier.
Another small tributary Glacier also falls into the main one from the N. W., a short distance below the point A. Its inclination is very great, but it perfectly maintains its continuity of structure to the
The lateral moraine of the west side of the northern branch of the glacier is first seen as it turns the point A, where it shows itself as a black band along the edge of the ice, which in other parts of the fall is quite white. The moraine is small between the points A and the tributary glacier below it; but from this it very rapidly increases, and in its lower parts is a chaos of desolation such as I never saw before. This great addition to the size of the moraine is owing to the quantity of debris brought down by the small glacier, over the lower parts of which stones were constantly rolling on to the upper end of the moraine during the whole time we were near it. We were thus here enabled to see the actual formation of a moraine.
The ice below
the junction of this tributary with the main glacier being much broken up by crevasses; rocks and gravel from the moraines on the two sides of the tributary are scattered over the space between them, and the moraines at first sight appear to lose their distinct form; but although there is no clear ice between the moraine that originates on the east of the tributary, and the west side of the glacier, the identity of that moraine is sufficiently marked by its color, and by the regular rise above the general surface of the glacier, of its top, which remains tolerably even for some way down, being beyond the limit of the disturbance caused by the crevasses along the edge of the glacier; about half way down to the lower end of the glacier however, the full action of these crevasses reaches the whole of the moraine, and it is scattered or lost sight of in the general confusion of surface.
An epoch of peculiar destructiveness to the mountains passed by the glacier is marked in one part of this moraine, by an accumulation of huge masses of rock from 20 to 30 feet square, and as much as 15 feet high, and the stones found on it, are generally larger than those on any of the other moraines; the true west lateral moraine below the tributary glacier is not very large, nor is its top much elevated above the bottom of the valley, excepting quite at its end. This is probably owing to the level of the valley on this side being higher, (vide fig. 3,) rather than to the top of the glacier being lower. The bottom of the valley slopes from the cliffs at its sides, inwards. On the east, the edge of the glacier is at some distance from the cliff and the bottom of the valley has dipped considerably where it meets. The foot of the moraine, the summit of which on that side, is high above the valley. On the west side the glacier edge is close to the cliff; the bottom of the valley will therefore be higher. I did not notice any difference of level in the two sides of the valley.
The lateral moraine of the S. E. side of the glacier is very large. Its top rises, on an average, probably 250 feet above the bottom of the valley. Along its foot runs a stream gradually increasing in size, that collects the drainage of the open part of the valley, and of the outer slopes of the moraine. The lower part of this slope is a mass of loose stones and earthy gravel, which rolls down from above, as the face of the ice, which is visible in the upper 50 or 60 feet of the slope, melts and recedes; this process is seen constantly going on. On the