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of other passages of the Nirukta) and before him Kautsa, had thus already before them the whole system of the ritual, and the exactly regulated application of the Vedic texts in religious services; they were acquainted with a number of the fundamental works of the Kalpa, of the Bráhmanas ; and the rationalistic Kautsa could count the Veda senseless and the Bráhmanas as false representations. A conclusion may hence be drawn as to the length of time* which must lie between this grammarian and the Bráhmanas; and as to what further period again must intervene between these liturgical writings and the Veda, which they explain allegorically and mystically, and recognize as already collected and arranged in the way in which it has come down to us; of which, e. g. the Aitareya Brahmana gives the most numero proofs.

By means of Buddhism we have, from quite a different side, a proof, which chimes in with the above, for the antiquity of the scientific treatment of the Veda, and the extended development of the ritual ; and I mention this only to show how that which we discover through the serial sequence of the Vedic writings, is confirmed through what is as yet the most certain historical channel. Sákyamuni comes as the proclaimer of a new religious truth, by which the limits of the way of salvation, the mass of the brahmanical institutions are torn down. His doctrine is a refuge even for Brahmans, who were unable to encounter the difficulties of their own complicated system. I If Buddhism could have such an importance in the 6th or 5th century B. C., then must that entire edifice of worship and ceremonies, which is based on the practical part of the Veda, the Brahmanas, have been long before erected. These books themselves are the oldest commentaries of the Veda, and bear witness to the existence of a grammatical science, which therefore must have preceded Buddhism also.

* This appears to be the place to which Note 6, which has been translated below refers. The figure of reference, however is not in the text.

+ Let me be allowed to remark here by the way on the Aitareya Bráhmana, that this book, which is the highest degree remarkable not only for its liturgical contents, but also, for a mass of historical notices and legends, and on which we have a most excellent commentary of Sáyana, is being prepared for publication by my friend Dr. C. Rieu. It is certainly one of the oldest writings of this kind, and its explanation will form the basis of our knowledge of the ritual.

E. Burnout, Introduction à l'histoire du Bouddhisme, p. 196. Il est avéré pour nous, que la doctrine du Cakja étail dévenue probablement assez vite une sorte de dévotion aisée, qui récrutait parmi ceux, qu'effrayaient les difficultés de la science brâhmanique. En même temps que le Bouddhisme attirait a lui les Brâhmans ignorants, il accueillait avec un empressement égal les pauvres des toutes conditions, etc.

Near and immediately after the Brahmanas, there may, yet further, have existed a proper and independent interpretation of the Veda, but this has been without doubt confined to the more difficult and important passages; and the Naighantuka may have been a collection of such sections, as used especially to be explained in the schools. Continuous commentaries probably did not then exist; and that of Mádhava and Sáyana, composed in the middle of the 14th century of our era is indeed the first and only complete gloss of the Rig Veda. From the long series of centuries which lie between Yáska and Sáyana but few remnants of an interpretative literature connected with the first Veda have remained to us, or at least have as yet been discovered. Sankara and the Vedantic school had turned chiefly to the Upanishads. Nevertheless a scholar of Sankara, Anandatirtha, has composed a gloss on one part of the Rig Veda, at least an explanation of which by Jayatirtha, embracing the 2nd and 3rd Adhyayas of the 1st Ashtaka is to be found in the library of the East India House in London. The mode of explanation is essentially the same as we have in Sáyana, only we can frequently reproach it with a still more violent treatment of the text. Sáyana himself, who is not always scrupulous in stating his sources, besides the Niruktatiká of Durgá, a fundamental book which has been preserved to us, cites also Bhattabkáshara Misra, and Bharataswámi as interpreters of the Veda. Of the former I have seen at least a commentary on a section of the Yájur Veda, on which he appears to have given a complete comment. Sayana's citations do not by any means necessarily show that he has given any explanation of the Rik.

Finally, Sáyana's commentary itself, which is already in some measure known by Rosen's extracts will always remain our principal source for the interpretation of the Veda, as well as a mine for the history of the literature generally. It belongs, it is true, to a period in which Vedic studies were but artificially revived, and to the range of whose view that ancient literature lay so far off that we cannot conceive it to have been distinctly understood ;—it is entirely dependent on what is more ancient, and especially makes the most extensive use of the Nirukta and Naighantuka, but still it gives without doubt all which the indigenous literature of its time could furnish. As its completeness has had for us the unfortunate consequence of throwing into oblivion older writings of a similar purport, so have we also in it the most essential results of this earlier literature, and we could certainly desire nothing more important for the furtherance of Vedic studies than a complete knowledge of the Sanhitá of the Rig Veda and its copious commentator.

It affords me peculiar pleasure to be able to conclude with the announcement that such a work is being prepared in England. For it science will be indebted to Professor Wilson, the man whose industry has already opened the way in so many provinces of this literature, and who is daily rendering to these studies, the most essential services by the unsurpassable liberality with which he first has afforded access to the richest Indian library. Under his guidance it will become possible for younger powers, among whom, along with Dr. Trithen in London and Dr. Rieu of Geneva, I may reckon myself, to make accessible to study these extensive materials for the explanation of the Veda.

EXCURSES AND ANNOTATIONS. 1. The Mandalas.-In the introduction to the Anukramaniká of the Rigveda, chap. 2, it is written : atha rishaya : satarchina ádvé mandalé, antyé ksudrasúktá, madhyaméshu madhyamá : (MS. 132, E. I. H.) that is, the authors of the hymns of the first Mandala are called authors of a hundred verses, those of the last, poets of the great and little hymn, and the authors of the intermediate Mandalas, the mediate. This explains Shadgurusishya (No. 1823, E.I. H.) the commentator of this book, as follows: Adyamandalasthá rishaya : satarchina iti sanjnitá : (risa shatán chatarchan)To which the following verse belongs :

dadarsádau Madhuchandá dwy-adhikan yad richán satan,

tat-sáhacharyád anyé ’pi vijnéyás tu satarchina. “ Because Madhuchandas at the commencement (of the Rigvéda) has composed 102 verses, (hymns 1-10) the others also who are placed along with him in this Mandala) are called authors of a hundred verses." The name, however, appears to be owing to the circumstance, that the greater number of the Rishis, enumerated in the first book, are authors of about a hundred double-verses, for instance Suna: Képha of 97, Kanwa of 96, Praskanwa of 82, Paruchépa of 100 double-verses.

The name of the Rishis of the last or 10th Mandala is thus explained : násadásit-púrwan mahásúktan, paran kshudra-súktan, (tat.) súktadarsitwád antyé dasamé mandalé sthitá rishaya : kshudrasúktamalıásúkta-námána: that is “ What is antecedent to násad ásit, is called the great hymn (the collection of great hymns) what succeeds it, the little hymn.” The hymn, as here alluded to, commences at the 11th Anuváka of the 10th book. The hymns of the 10 first chapters are also called the great undoubtedly, but in distinction from the 63 very short hymns of the 11th and 12th chapters, which hymns moreover bear a peculiar character.

The Rishis are all enumerated in the Grihyasútras of Aswalayana, book 3, ch. 4, (MS. 129, E. I. H.) on the occasion of the special kind of honour due to them in connexion with the perusal, as prescribed, of the sacred books (Swadhyaya). I quote here the whole passage; for although it probably does not originally belong to these Sátras, yet it is important for our knowledge of the extent of the Védic literature, and also of that which is held of the same authority, and it shows in a striking manner, how many works of this period are entirely unknown to us !-"Atha rishaya : satarchino, mádhyamá Gritsamado, Viswamitro, Vámadevo trir, Bharadwajo, Vasishta : Pragáthá pávamánya: Ksudrasúktá Mahásúktá iti, Práchínávítí Sumantu-JäiminiVaisampáyana, Paila-sútra-bhashya, bhárata-mahábhárata-dharmácháryá Jánanti-Bárhavi, Gárjya-Gautama-Sákalya, Bábhravya, Mándavya, --Mándúkeyá, Gargi, Váchaknaví, Vadavá, Prátitheyi, Sulabhá, Maitreyi, Kaholan, Kaushitakan, Malá Kaushitakan, Paijyan, Mahápaijnan,* Sujajnan, Sánkhyáyanam, Aitaréyan, Mahaitaréyan, Sákalan, Báshkalan, Sujatavaktram, Audaváhim, Mahandaváhim, Saujamim, Saunakam, Aswaláyanam, yé chányé ácháryás, té sarvé tripyantw iti.

The divisions of the single Mandalas are as follow :

1. Mand. the Mandala of the Satarchina Rishis, containing in 24 Anuvákas 191 Súktas (hymns) by Rishis of different families, includes Asht I. to II. adhyaya 5, varga 16.

2. Mandala, the Mandala of Gritsamada. Ast. II. 5, 17 to 8, 12. 4 Anuvákas, 42 súktas (an. 1 súkt 4-7, are ascribed to Somáhuti, the son of Bhrigu. Anuv. 3, 5–7, to Kúrma, the son of Gritsamada, or to the latter himself.)

* MS. 986 has the same reading ; but MS. 1839, E. J. H. give the correct one, Painjyan, Mahápainjyam.

3. Mand. Viswamitra. Asht. II. 8, 13 to III. 4, 11–5 Anuv, 62 súkt. (anuv. 5, súkt. 1—3—are ascribed to Prajápati, the son of Viswamitra, or of Vák (goddess of speech.)

4. Mand. Vámadeva. Asht. III. 4, 12 to 5, 11.-5 Anuv. 57 súkt.

5. Mand. Atri and Rishi of his tribe. Asht. III. 8, 12 to IV. 4, 34–6 Anuv. 79 súkt.

6. Mand. Bharadwája. Asht. IV. 4, 39 to V. 1, 21–6 Anuv. 75 súkt.

7. Mand. Vasishtha. Asht. V. 1, 23 to 7, 9–6 Anuv. 104 súkt. (Kumára, son of Agni or Vasishtha, is the author of anuv. 6 súkt. 12 to 13).

8. Mand. Asht. V. 7, 10 to VI. 7, 15–10 anuy, 101 súkt. This was before mentioned under the name of Pragathás, according to the commentators a hymn, of which the uneven verses are bhịati, the even verses sato-bshati, that is to say, a hymn composed of verses of four lines, and of which the first line contains two padas of 8 syllables each, while the second, third and fourth lines are composed of a pada of 12, and another pada of 8 syllables. As this Mandala commences with a Pragátha of the kind, which is ascribed to Pragátha, the son of Kanwa, and moreover contains some other hymns of the same Rishi, the name is probably a quibble on the two meanings of the word. The greater number of the Rishis belong to the family of Kanwa.

9. Mand. Asht. VI. 7, 15, to VII. 5, 28—7 anuv. 114 súkt. The Pavamányas (probably richas) or according to the commentary of the Anukramaniká pávamánan saumyan maņdalam, hymns of purification. -The hymns of this book, for the greater part ascribed to the Agirasides, refer without exception to the extracting and purification of the juice of the Soma-plant.

10. Mand. Asht. VII. 5, 29 to the end. The Kshudrasúktás and Mahásúktás, 12 anuv. and 192 súktas.

The name of the 9th Mandala, is found in Yáskás Nir, X. 2, tasya pávamáníshn nidarsanáyoda harishyáma ; 11" to prove this we shall take an example from the pávamányas ;" he then gives the quotation from the 9th Mandala.

There is in this Véda something quite peculiar which is in connexion with the division above mentioned, and which to a certain degree may

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