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the curious personifications, by which in the Atharvéda, animals, plants and even diseases are invoked. The passage is taken from K. V. 22, (according to the Paris MS. and No. 682 E. J. H.) Agnis takmánam apabádhatám ita : somo, grává, varuna : pútadakshá : 1 védir, barbi: samidha : sosuchána apa dwéshásy amuyá bhavantu !! 1 ayan yo viswán haritán kținoshy i uchchochayann agnir ivábhidunwan i adhá hi, takmann, araso hi bhúyá / adhá jnann adharán vá paréhi || 2 Oko asya Mújavanta, oko asya Mahávrisha : 1 Yávaj játas, takmans, táván asi Vahlikéshu nyochara : 5* takman, Mújavato, gacha, Vahlikán vá parastarán 1 Súdram icha prabharoyan, tán takman, víva dhánuhi 17 Mahávrishán, Mújavato bandhv addhi parétya 1 ** praitáni takmané brúmo anya-kshétráni vá imá 11 8 Takman bhrátrá balásena swasrá kásikayá saha i Pámná bhrátřivyéņa saha gachámum arañan janan 11 12 Gandháribhyo, Mújavabhyo, ’njébhyo, Magadhébhya :/ praishyan janam iva sévadhim takmánan paridadmasi || 14

1. Agni, drive away from here Takman (may drive him away) Soma, the sacrificial) stone, Varuna of pure strength, the fire-place, the sacred straw, the burning wood. Be


from here envious men. 2. Thou who maketh yellow the whole body, who giveth pain like fire when burning upwards, thou, O Takman, nevertheless, lose thy power, pass by, moving downwards or from underneath.

3. Iis house are the Mújavat, his house the Malávrisha ; whenever thou art born, O Takman, thou goest to the Valilika.

7. Go to the Mújavat, Takman, or to the distant Vahlika, desire the Súdra for nourishment. These, O Takman, somewhat shake.

8. Devour the Mahávríshas, the Mújavats, passing over from us ; we leave these or other foreign countries to Takman.

12. Takman, with thy brother Balása (dejection) with thy sister Kásiká (cough) with thy brother's son Páman (itching) go to that foreign people.

13. We give Takman as a messenger, as a treasure, to the Gandháris, the Minjavats, to the Angas and Magadhas.

I am unable to correct the gnykaras after two MSS. No. 682 E. J. II. reads l'ah. likesha gnyokara :/ the meaning, however, is evident.

It is evident, that under Takman some disease must be understood, but which, the passage does not define. K. V. 4 is invoked the medicinal herb Kushta, which grows on the Ilimavat, and is repeatedly called takmanásana (destroyer of Takman); according to Wilson kushta is the plant Costus speciosus. The variety in writing must undoubtedly be ascribed to the MS., and as kushtha means also leprosis, and the plant probably has the name from its power to heal that disease, takman, no doubt, signifies a similar cutaneous disease, to which the 2 rig alludes.

To 5. I meet again with the Mújavats in the Vajasanéyasanhitá III. 61 état té Rndrávasan téna paro Mújavata 'tíhi / avatata-dhanwa piná kávasa : Krittivásá ahinsan na: sivo 'tíhill (according to No. 2391, E. J. H.) “This is your travelling fare, Rudra ; with this proceed further far to the Mújavats. With bow unbent; the staff in hand, clothed with skins, without harming us, may he graciously proceed on.” Mahídhara explains the Mújavatas, as follows: Mújaván náma kachit parvato Rudrasya vámasthanam ... májavata : parvatán pá: pábhágavarti (para : parabhágavarti) san, atikramya gacha : “Mújavat is the name of a mountain, the favourite abode of Rudra, &c. therefore proceed beyond the Mújavat mountains.” Durga, the commentator of the Nirukta (ap. I. C.) simply explains the word by parvatát, and consequently takes it as the ablative. According to Nirukta IX. 8, Mújaván is the same with parvata, and we find in. Rik. X. 3, 5, 1, somasyéva maujavatasya bhaksha; as the enjoyment of the mountain-born Soma. The Mújavats are therefore mountaineers, and as they in V. 7, are mentioned in connexion with the Vahlikas, and V. 14, in connexion with the Gandháris, we have to consider them mountainous tribes to the N. W. The Mahávrichas (magni libatores or validi progenitores) according to V. 5 and 8 must be assigned to the same countries. All agree, that the Vahlikas are a Bactrian nation. (Lassen, Zeitschrift II. p. 53 etc. Wilson, Vishnu P. p. 191.)

Prabharvyan (681, E. J. H. reads, however, Prapharvyan) from bharvati, according to Naigh. II. 7, attikarmá, consonantly to the Nirukta IX. 23, where we meet with the proper name of Súbharva. That we have under the name of Súdra not to think of the later caste, but of a nation of this name, appears to me beyond doubt, until the castes can be traced in the Védic hymns. I am not aware of any such

passage. (The Xndra or the Squdra of the cuneiform inscriptions of Persepolis cannot well be here expected) ; with Lassen we must consider them the {vôpákai (or 'Očudpákai) who appear to the N. W. of the Indus. See also Wilson's Vish. P. p. 195.

12. The meaning of araña as foreign, distant, is authorized by the passages in the Rik. X. 5, 3, 16. Sá no amá so arane nipátu, she may protect us when near, she may protect us, when distant (in foreign parts, in and out of the house. Durga's Commentary on Nirukta. xi. 46.) Nir. III. 2. parishadyan hy aranasya rekņo nityasya ráya : pataya ; syáma ; “for we must avoid foreign property, may we be lords of perpetual property" (Durga on Nir. III. 2, where there is the question of possessing children,araņa-parakulajáta. Sayána ad. I. without any reason anriņa.)

14. Lassen has at several places with full certainty assigned to the Gandharas the eastern Kabulistan as their original abode. From Védic works I can only add, that the wool-clad sheep of the same were famous, according to Rig. I. 18, 6, 7. romasá Gandhárinám iváviká, haired (woolly), like a sheep of the Gandharas. In the Aitareya Brahmana VII. 34, there appears Najnajit, the Gandhara, among those who have learnt from Parvata and Nárada the knowledge of a certain ritual. From the nation of the Gandharas extending into the Punjaub it can be explained, that one of their princes appears among such as are under the protection of the Brahmanical worship, while the nation in the passage of the Atharva alluded to is counted among the foreign and distant nations.

As the Anga, also in the poetry of a later period frequently referred to, must be supposed to have had their abodes on the Ganges about Bhágalpur, and the Magadhas in South Behár, we have in v. 14 two and two nations for the two frontiers in N. W. and S. E., consequently at the time of the composition of this hymn, the country of the Bráhmanical worship appears to have been comprehended by these two extremes, and the country beyond the river Soná (Sone) to have been considered not Indian.

Sévadhi has not yet obtained in ancient Sanscrit the meaning of a treasure of Kuvéra. Nir. II. 4, it is identified with nidhi, compare Rik. Asht. VI, 4, 19 sévadhipá.

As an example of another kind of incantation the following verses may be considered. Ath Sanh. III. 2.

Munchámi twá havishá jivanaya kam Ajnáta jakshmád utá rajá

jákshmáti Gráhir jagraha yady étad enam tasya Indrágni pramumuktam énam 1 1 Yadi kshitáyur, yadi va paréto, yadi mrityor antikam níta éva Tam áharami nirritér upasthád aspársam enam sata sáradáya 11 2

1. With this havish (sacrificial butter) I liberate thee for thy life, from the concealed consumption or from the pulmonal consumption ; when the attacker has attacked him, then liberate him from the same, Indra and Agni.

2. If his life be consumed, or if he went already, or if he has been led near to death, then I will bring him back from the brink of death uninfested to a life of a 100 years.

4. Atharvana Sanhitá, K. IV. 29. (M. 682. E. J. H.) Manwé vá Mitrá Varunáv ritávridhau sachétasau druhvaņo jau nudéthé ! Pra satyávánam avatho bharéshu tan no munchatam anhasa : 11 1 Sachétasau druhvaņo jau nudéthé pra Satiávánam avatho bharéshu i yav gachatho nrichakshasau babhrú ná sutan tau no .... 112 yáu Angirasam avatho I jau Vasishthan tau no ....113 yau Syáváshwam avatho, Vadhryaswan, Mitrá-Varuná, Purumilham,

Atrimi yau Vimadam avatha : Suptavadhrim tau no 114 yau Bharadvájam avatho, yau Gavishthiran, Viswamitran, Varuna

Mitra, Kutsant yau Kakshívantam avatha : prota kaņwan tau no .... 11 5 yau Medhatithim avatho, yau Trisokan, Mitrá. Varunár, Usanám

Kávyan yau 1 yau Gotamam avatha : prota Mudgalan tau no .... 116 yayo ratha : satyavartma 'rjunasmir mithuyá charantam abhiyati

hrishayan Stanmi Mitrá-Varunau náthito johavími tau no munchatam anhasa 11 7

1. My mind is directed to you, Mitra and Varuna, you that increase what is right, you of benevolent mind that repel all that is hostile, that protected Sátyávan in his fights. Do liberate us from peril.

You benevolent who repel the enemies, who protected Satiávan in his fights, who approach (for assistance) you guides of men, as the horses of Indra to the libation.--Do liberate, etc,

3. Who protected Angirasa, and Agasti, Mitra and Varuna, Jamadagni and Atri, who protected Kasyapa and Vasihtha. Do liberate, etc.

1. Who protected Syávashwa, Vadhryaswa, Mitra and Varuna, Purumilha, Atri, who protected Vimada, Sáptavadhri. Do liberate, etc.

5. Who protected Bharadvája, Gavíshthira, Viswamitra, Varuna, Mitra, Kutsa, who protected Kakshivat and Kanwa. Do liberate, etc.

6. Who protected Medhátithi, Trisoka, Mitra, Varuna, Usana, the son of Kaviya, Gotama, Mudgala. Do, etc.

7. The Chariot of whom running on the right road, with tight rein, overjoyed passes the racing.

I praise you, Mitra and Varuna, I invoke you praying.

I here give the proof, that the greater number of the persons, mentioned in the hymn, are Védic Rishis.

Jamadagni is (according to the Anukramaniká and other sources) author of VIII. 10, 8. IX. 3, 2, 3, 6. 3, 7, 6. IX, 7, 4, 6. X 10, 11, 12, 16. 22.--Atri, author of several hymns in the 5th book, Kasyapa for I, 15, 6. VIII. 4, 9. IX. 3, 4. 3, 7, 2. 5, 6. 5. 7. 7, 4, 2. IX. 7, 10. The whole 7th book and several parts of the 9th are ascribed to Vasishta. Syáswa (from Atris' family) V. 4, 8 to 5, 5. 5, 10. 6, 9, and 10. VIII. 5, 5 to 8. IX. 2. 8. Purumilha (with Ajamitha, both sons of Suhotra) IV. 4, 11 and 12. VIII. 2, 8. Saptavadhri (from Atris' family) V, 6, 6. To Bharadwaja the greater number of the hymns of the 6th book is attributed, to Viswamitra the third book, Gavishthira (with Buddhu) V. 1. 1. Kutsa 1, 11, 1 to 5. 15, 8 to 16, 10. IX, 6, 1, 15 to 58. Kakshírat 1, 17, 1 to 18, 6. IX, 4, 7. Kanwa, 1, 1 to 8. IX. 5, 9. Medhátithi, 1, 4, 1 to 5, 4, and several hymns of the Sth book. Trisoka (from Kanwar family) VIII, 6, 3, 3. Usanas IX, 1, 4. 5, 2 to 4. Gotama I am. 13 to 14, and some parts of the 9th book Mudgala, son of Bhrimyaswas, is named as the author of X, 9, 3.

5. There is in the Library of the East India House and among Professor Wilson's books deposited in the Bodleyan Library at Oxford, a very extensive collection of these liturgical Sútras, of which the greater number has not found a commentator. Those that I saw are the Sútras of Aswaláyana, Apastamba, Drágháyana, Kátyáyana, Látváyana, Sankhyáyana, Gobhila and Bouddhayana. Aswalayana's Sútras, with which I am best acquainted, appear, to judge only from

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