صور الصفحة
PDF
النشر الإلكتروني

China Sea by myself; for without a knowledge of the average tracks the problem of the management of a vessel becomes much more intricate for the seaman; since it is upon the track of the Storm (as upon that of a pirate or enemy) that his manæuvres must depend, and this he must know or know how to calculate. Hence the importance of this chart in a nautical point of view.

There is one more relation in which I venture to present it, and that is the following. If we produce by the eye or a ruler the various tracks of the Storms backwards to the Eastward on the same line we shall find them all tending as it were, to some focus of volcanic action now in activity. Beginning from the South, the first set appear to come from some of the numerous Sumatran Volcanoes or of the Volcanic islands which fringe its coasts. The next set, and these are the most remarkable, will mostly be found to arise about Barren Island, which is a Volcano always in activity, and to run towards points between the West and N. N. W., while a third, the Dacca and Kyook Phyoo hurricanes seem traceable from the volcanic centres of Cheduba (or Chittagong.)

It is difficult to say that these coincidences are not more than accidental, but I shall best explain my general views on the subject by the following, copied from my forth-coming work, p. 19, par. 33 :

“Other suggestions have been thrown out and instances adduced by different writers as to the possibility of volcanoes, and even fires, originating violent circular motions of the atmosphere, and that volcanic eruptions are often accompanied by violent storms and heavy falls of rain, there is no doubt. I have myself pointed out, though my published Researches have hitherto been confined like those of Redfield and Reid to the effects, as the sure eventual index to guide us bac ard to the causes of Storms, that in the China Sea and Bay of Bengal* there is much to countenance the idea that Storms in some parts of the world may originate at great volcanic centres, and I am inclined to believe also that their tracks are partly over the great internal chasms of our globe, by which perhaps the volcanic centres and bands communicate with each other. If we produce at both ends the line of the track of the great Cuba hurricane of 1844, we shall find that it extends from the great and highly active volcano of Cosseguina on the Pacific shore of central America to Hecla in Iceland ! and in 1821 the breaking out of the great volcano of Eyafjeld Yokul in Iceland, which had been quiet since 1612, was followed all over Europe by dreadful storms of wind, hail and rain. In Iceland the

Sixth Memoir, Storms of the China Sea, Journal Asiatic Society, Vol. XI. p. 717.

80

References

25

The Roman numerals refer to those runbers of me

the Journal of the Asiane Soudy of Bengal in which of this part of the world are investigated

The Italia letters refer lo Storms for which I have, which are yet unpublished

[blocks in formation]
[merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small]

Barometer fell from the day before the eruption till the twenty-sixth day after.* Mr. Espy quotes several other cases, and Humboldt for South America, to show that nothing is better established than the fact of the connection of volcanoes with rains and storms. Purdy (Atlantic Memoir) also alludes to the supposed focus of sub-marine volcanic action on the Equator, in that sea, as the spot to which the southern extremes of the West Indian hurricane tracks would tend, if continued. If I advert to these speculations it is with the hope of drawing the attention of intelligent mariners to them.”

Espy, p. 67, 68, not correctly printed.

Meteorological Register kept at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, for the Month of July, 1847.

[blocks in formation]

Barometer reduced to 32° Fah

Of the Mer renheit.

Of the Air. cury.

Aspect of the Sky.

Aspect of the Sky.

of Wet Bulb.

Direction from sunrise to 9h 50m.

Barometer reduced to 32° Fahrenheit.

Of the Mercury. Of the Air.

Of Wet Bulb

Direction
from 2.40 to
4 p. m.

Maximum
Temperature.

[blocks in formation]

po 5o cover woon Days of the Month.

:: Uppers

1.37 1.50
1.92 2.10
0.35 0.43

8
9
10
115
12

0.20) 0.27
0.68 0.74
2.99 3.09
0.22 0.29
0.78 0.87
0.21 0.27
0.05 0.06
0.52 0.62

13

In.29.554 84.8 84.0 80.8 S. E.

.462 89.0 86.0 81.5 S.
.471 187.3 86.1 82.0 S.
.556 80.5 80.9 77.8 S.
.651 82.5 81.5 77.0 E.
.662 89.0 87.8 80.2 S.
.587 89.0 88.0 81.0 S.
.523 89.0 87.5 81.0 S. W.
.517/ 85.0 85.6 82.0 S.
.485 85.8 85.0 80.4 S. W.
.485 88.5 87.0 82.0 N. E.
.51787.0 87.0 82.0 N. E.
.485 81.0 81.41 80.0 S. W.
.519 87.0 85.880.8 S.
.479 86.8 86.0 82.0 S.
.518 84.5 84.9 79.8 N.
.628 85.6 84.0 80.0 S.
.696 88.0 87.6 80 OS.
.669 87.0 86.6 80.5 S.
.685 81.8 82.0 80.0 S.
.688 87.0 85.9 79.8, S.
.603 90.2 87.8 81.8 S.
.579 85.8 84.9 80.7 S.
.612 83. 1 82.8 79.2 S.
.613 89.0 87.0 80.0 S. E.
.635, 90.5 89.0 81.9 E.
.647 89.4 86.2 79.8 S. E.
.708 90.5 87.5 80.7|S. E.
.725 88.5 88.0 81.8 S.
.710 90.0 88.4 81.4 S. W.
.639 88.5 88.2 81.9 S.

14
15
16
17
18S
19
20
21
22
23
24
255
26
27
28
29
30
31

Cloudy.
Cumulo strati.
Cloudy.
Cloudy.
Cloudy.
Cumulo strati.
Cumulo strati.
Cumuli.
Cloudy.
Cloudy.
Cloudy.
Cloudy Cirro-Cumuli.

Rain.
Cloudy.
Nimbi.
Cloudy.
Cloudy.
Cumuli.
Cumuli.
Drizzly.
Cirro Cumuli.
Cumulo strati.
Cloudy.
Nimbi.
Cumulo strati.

Ditto.
Ditto.
Ditto.
Ditto.
Ditto.
Ditto.

In.29.436 88.0 85.0 80.0 S. E.

.406 86.0 80.5 79.4 S. E.
.395 87.0 86.0 81.0
.499 83.0 83.0 78.4 S.
.572 88.5 86.5 80.0 S.
.555 94.0 91.5 81.0 S.
.465 91.4 90.6 82.0 S.
.400 94.5 92.0 83.2 S. W.
.421 89.5 88.5 82.6 S.
.430 78.0 79.0 77.3 N.
.400 91.7 89.2 82.2 S. E.
.417 89.5 88.0 82.3 V. E.
.420 87.0 86.9 82.0 W.
.421 89.8, 88.2 81.4$.
.392 86.5 86.1 82.8 S. E.
.445 86.8 86.0 80.8 S.
.570 86.0 86.0 79.0 S.
.606 90.0 88.5 80.2 S.
.577 87.0 86.8 80.3 S.
.585 84.3 84.4 79.9 S.
.563 89.9 89.0 81.0 S,
.466 95.7 89.4 82.1 S.
.493 88.0 86.9 82.0 S.
.534, 81.5 81.8 79.0 S. E.
.534 87.0 85.0, 80.5 S. E.
.551 87.0 83.7 79.0/S. E.
.582 91.0 89.2 81.5 S. E.
.623 89.0 87.9 81.0|S, E.
.626 91.0 89.5 81.8 S.
.593 90.5| 90.2 81.3 S.
.523 90.5 90.0 83.0 S.

Cumulo strati.
Rain.
Cumulo strati.
Cloudy.
Cloudy.
Cumulo.
Cirro strati.
Very cloudy.
Cloudy.
Drizzly.
Cloudy.
Cloudy.
Cloudy.
Cumulo strati.
Cloudy.
Cloudy.
Cloudy.
Cumulo strati.
Cloudy.
Cloudy.
Cumulo strati.
Cloudy.
Cloudy.
Nimbi.
Cumulo strati.
Rain, thundering.
Cumulo strati.
Cumulo strati.
Cloudy,
Cumulo strati.
Cirro strati.

91.0
91.4
91.6
84.0
89.6
94.3
94.2
95.9
89.6
89.0
99.2
91.4
87.2
91.4
91.0
85.8
87.8
91.4
90,0
87.0
90.4
91.9
89.4
87.9
86.4
91.1

91.1
* 90.4
· 92.5
92.8
93.8

[blocks in formation]

29.700 88.3 86.9 180.81

91.0

14.14 15.69

« السابقةمتابعة »