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with white, a vermilion band at the root of the tail, and in some a similar near the point.
Scuta 166, Scutella 17. HABIT.- Pinang.
Java. The present variety corresponds in all particulars to the description of C. linnei by M. Schlegel, who however does not mention that the two or three anterior teeth on each side of the lower jaw are longer than the rest. Of six individuals from the hills of Pinang the largest individual measured
Length of the head,
11 inch. Circumference of the neck , of the trunk 4 inch.
CALAMARIA LONGICEPS. N. S. (See plate, Fig. 1.) Strongly iridescent soot-coloured, a shade lighter beneath ; the scuta and scutella edged with whitish. Eyes and tongue black.
Scuta 131, Scutella 26. Habit.-Pinang.
The head is elongated, narrow, conical, the muzzle rounded, projecting over the lower jaw. The anterior frontals are much smaller than the frontals, which on the sides occupy the place of the absent frenal shield, and thus reach the second upper labial; the nasal is very small, rectangular, perforated by the rather large nostril near the lower anterior angle. The eye is comparatively large, between an obliquely placed rectangular præ-orbital, and a similar post-orbital shield; the supra-orbitals are narrow, rectangular ; the vertical moderate, pentagonal, arched and somewhat narrowed at the anterior margin. The occipitals, the largest, are elongated, bordered below by the large fifth upper labial, and behind by a single pair of post-occipitals. Each jaw has 5 pairs of labials. Of the 2 pairs of mentals, the anterior is the longer, and is enclosed by the rostral and 3 anterior labials, the posterior pair, by the fourth labial. The teeth are minute, sharp, reclining, all of equal size. The trunk is cylindrical, narrowed towards
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS both extremities, covered with 15 longitudinal series of smooth, rhombic, imbricate scales. The abdomen is arched, the short tail tapering to a blunt point. This species approaches to Calamaria alba (Linné), (C. brachyorrhos, Schlegel), but differs by its elongated shape of the shields of the head, and its larger eyes. A single individual, captured by W. T. Lewis, Esq., on the Great Hill of Pinang, was of the following dimensions : Length of the head,
03 inch. Ditto ditto trunk,
5 Ditto ditto tail,
6 inch. Circumference of the trunk *, of the neck %, at the root of the tail } inch.
CALAMARIA SAGITTARIA. Syy.-Calamaria sagittaria, Cantor : Spicil.
Head yellow or white, marbled with black, forming a streak above the citrine lips ; neck white with a black arrow-shaped mark ; back partly ash, partly rust-coloured, with a medial series of distant minute black spots; sides bluish-black or grey, with a narrow black line above; beneath citrine, the throat marbled with black, and with a minute black spot near the lateral angle of each scutum.
Scuta 216 to 227 ; Scutella 57 to 70.
But for the diminutive size, and the reduced shields of the head and throat, this species might be taken for a Coronella. The head is but little distinct, depressed, ovate, covered by the normal number of shields. The anterior frontals are very small, pentagonal ; the frenal short rectangular. The nostrils are rather large, piercing the middle of the nasal. The eyes are large, prominent with one præ-orbital, two post-orbitals; the upper jaw, but slighly longer than the lower, has on each side 6 labials, the lower 7, enclosing two pairs of small mentals. The temples are covered by three shields. The trunk, with 17 longitudinal series of smooth, rhomboidal imbricate scales, is slightly thicker towards the middle than at the extremities; the back throughout depressed, forming an angle with the sides, and the abdomen is flat, which makes a vertical section of the body square. The tail is very slender, tapering to a sharp point, and exceeds one-fifth of the entire length. The teeth are very minute, of equal size. A single specimen from the Malayan Peninsula was of the following dimensions :
Length of the head,
113 inch. Circumference of the truuk: 5, of the neck and root of the tail fin.
In Bengal this species is of no uncommon occurrence, particularly during the rainy season, when the water compels the serpents to leave the shady recesses which most of them occupy to avoid the heat of the day. The present species appears to be closely allied to the African C. arctiventris, Schlegel.
Of the preceding four species, the three first appear at Pinang exclusively to inhabit the hills, but the variety of C. lumbricoidea occurs at Singapore in valleys. They are nowhere to be met in numbers. They are of gentle peaceable habits, never attempting to bite, and scarcely to escape. They are sluggish, move but slowly, and to a short distance, even when compelled by danger, and soon resume the motionless position which they appear to affect. The remarkable abstinence of most of their congeners, they possess but in a very limited degree. In captivity they refuse food, and soon expire ; besides, they are so delicate, that slight pressure in examining them, is sufficient to kill them. Their bodies are very smooth, and brilliantly reflect rain-bow-colours, which continue in preserved specimens, long after the gay livery has faded. They feed upon slugs, earth-worms, and insects. The stomach of a C. sagittaria contained remains of an Iulus and some sand. In general appearance, and habits these species of Calamaria strongly resemble the Malayan Elaps (vide infra.)
GEN. CORONELLA, Laurenti. Ilead above covered with large plates, of which one between the eyes ;