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longer than the rest, which gradually decrease. The scales of the trunk, in 25 longitudinal series, are rhombic with rounded points, imbricate, and all smooth except those covering the spinous processes, which are faintly lineated.
Of two individuals from the hills of Pinang, the larger, taken by Sir William Norris, was of the following dimensions:
Circumference of the neck 2, of the trunk 3, of the root of the tail 14 inch. The ferocious habits of this serpent have been accurately described by M. Reinwardt. It has in a remarkable degree the power of laterally compressing the neck and the anterior part of the body, when the greyish blue skin becomes visible between the separated scales. In such state of excitement it raises nearly the anterior third vertically from the ground, continues fixed during several seconds with vibrating tongue, and bites. It then throws itself down, to rise to a renewed attack. A similar mode of attack characterises the following species, viz: Dryinus nasutus, (Lacépède,) (Russell, I. Pl. 12 and 13,),—D. prasinus, (Reinwardt.) (Dryiophis prasina apud Schlegel,) Leptophis pictus (Gmelin), and Leptophis caudalineatus.
GEN. DRYINUS,* Merrem, 1820.
Upper jaw much longer than the lower; muzzle attenuated, more or Jess acute at the apex, which in some species is mucronate and moveable.
DRYINUS PRASINUS, (Reinwardt.)
SYN.-Seba, II, Tab. LIII, Fig. 4.
Coluber nasutus,† Shaw, apud Russell, II, Pl. 24.
*In H. Boie's Genera, published in Isis, 1827, Dryophis, (Dahlman,) is substituted for this genus. Wagler in 1830 separated some species under the denomination of Tra
gops, and M. Schlegel in his " Essay" has exclusively retained Dryiophis, although Prof. Thos. Bell already in 1825 had published his article on Leptophina (comprising Dryinus, Merrem, and Leptophis, Bell.)
†The specific name was previously applied by Lacépède in 1790 to the other Asiatic species.
Dryophis prasinus, Reinwardt.
Dryinus nasutus, Bell, apud Horsfield: Life of Raffles.
Dryiphis prasina, apud Schlegel.
Ular daun" of the Malays.
Leek-green above, with some irregular white and black oblique lines, paler on the cheeks and upper lips; tail cinnamon; under lips and throat white, scuta and scutella light green or mother-of-pearl, on each side with a white or pale yellow longitudinal line, below which in some a second, green, line. Pupil black, elongated-pyriform, with the apex turned forwards, horizontally contracted by the light. Iris pale burnished golden, bright on the pupillary margin, the upper half of which forms a little behind its middle a small pointed lobe. Tongue bluish white.
Scuta 186 to 228, Scutella 140 to 203.
HABIT.-Malayan Peninsula and Islands.
Celebes, Java, Cochin-China, Siam, Burmah, Tenasserim,
SYN.-Dryiophis xanthozonius, Kuhl?
Head less elongated and the rostral shield unusually small; upper lips in some white; besides the yellow and green lateral line, a central green; scuta and scutella in some with brown edges.
Head above light brownish grey, tinged with sky-blue and rosecolour cheeks and lips pale rose; trunk light brownish ash, changing to pale rust colour on the tail; whitish grey on the sides; beneath buff, with a white longitudinal line on each side. Iris burnished silver, tongue white.
Upper parts saffron yellow, paler on the sides; beneath sulphurcoloured, with a lateral white line. Pupil deep burnished golden; tongue white.
HABIT. Pinang Hills.
This species is exceedingly numerous in the Malayan forests, both
in the hills and valleys, preying upon small birds, arborial lizards, frogs, and in early age upon insects. It may readily be distinguished from Dryinus nasutus, (Lacép.) (Merrem, not Bell ;-Russell, I. Pl. 12, 13) by two, sometimes 3 frenals on each side. The trunk is covered by 15 longitudinal series of smooth rhomboidal scales with rounded points, imbricate so as to appear linear; those of the tail are all broad rhombic. The anterior upper maxillary teeth gradually increase towards the sixth, which is the longest, and enclosed in a pointed fold of gingiva. The following teeth, commencing at a short interval, are short, but the last is very long with a furrow on the convex edge. The inferior maxillary teeth also increase in length towards the sixth, the longest, and are protected by a broad triangular scabbard, containing several additional loose teeth; the rest are uniformly small, commencing at a short interval from the sixth. The palatal are uniformly very short. The largest individual of a great number measured :
Circumference of the neck 13, of the trunk 23, of the root of the tail 1 inch.
The Varieties, of which B. and C. were from the hills of Pinang, are not numerous, and of a comparatively small size. The very young ones are as gentle as those of a more advanced age are ferocious. Their power of expanding the anterior part of the body and their mode of attack, have been noted under Herpetodryas oxycephalus.
GEN. LEPTOPHIS, Bell, 1825.
Rostrum obtuse, and the upper jaw projects but very slightly beyond the lower.
LEPTOPHIS PICTUS, (Gmelin.)
SYN.-Coluber pictus, Gmelin.
Coluber decorus, Shaw.
Russell, II. Pl. 26, Cumberi muken.
Bungarus filum, Oppel.
Dipsas schokari, Kuhl, (not Forskal.)
Dendrophis chairecacos, H. Boie.
Dendrophis picta, Schlegel.
Head and body above bronze with strong golden reflections; skin beween the scales of the anterior part of the body alternately ultramarine and black. Lips, throat, the two lowest lateral rows of scales, and the abdominal surface silvery mother-of-pearl. From the muzzle to the root of the tail a black line, bordering above the silvery sides, which below are circumscribed by a second black line, commencing a *little behind the head. Iris bright golden with a transversal black line; pupil black, circular; tongue scarlet.
Scuta 167 to 187, Scutella 109 to 149.
HABIT.-Malayan Peninsula and Islands.
Manilla, New Ireland, Waigiou, Amboina, New Guinea, Pulo Samao, Java, Sumatra, Cochin-China, Tenasserim, Burmah, Bengal, Assam, Coromandel.
SYN.-Coluber filiformis, Linné, (young.)
Fil, Double Raie, Lacépède, (young.)
Russell, II. Pl. 25, Mancas, Rooka, Maniar.
Coluber bilineatus, Shaw.
Leptophis mancas, Bell.
Dendrophis maniar, Boie.
Ahortula bellii, Grav. Ill. Ind. Zool.
Dendrophis lateralis, Gray: Ill. Ind. Zool.
Chrysopelea boii, Smith.
Dendrophis picta, Var. Schlegel.
Dendrophis boii, apud Cantor.
Above dull brownish black, with a light brown dorsal line; the two lowest series of scales pale greenish white, forming a lateral band, bordered above by a black line, commencing from the muzzle, more or less distinct, in some irregularly broken up on the anterior part of the body. A second faint black line below. Iris golden, in some dotted with black; tongue black.
Bengal, Assam, Ceylon.
The species occurs numerously in the Malayan hills and valleys, but the contrary appears to be the case with the plain Variety, which in Bengal is equally common. The following must be added to the description of M. Schlegel. The frenal shield is small, rectangular; The Variety, Col. polychrous, Reinwardt, appears to inhabit neither the Malayan Peninsula nor Bengal.
superior labials 9, inferior 10 or 11; one præ-orbital, two, in some three small post-orbitals. The trunk is covered by 15 longitudinal series of smooth, imbricate scales; the central dorsal series is wedgeshaped, in some almost hexagonal, the next six are linear, but the lowest, as well as all the scales of the tail, are broad rhombic with rounded points. In a female were found seven coriaceous, whitish eggs of an elongated cylindrical shape, each 18 inch in length. In habits and mode of attack this species resembles Dryinus prasinus, but it is not exclusively arborial. Probably no instance affords a more striking difference in colours, between species and variety than the present the former with dazzling brilliant livery; the latter in its plain, dull colours. Both attain to similar size: the largest male examined was of the following dimensions :
Length of the head,
Ditto ditto trunk,
Ditto ditto tail,
Circumference of the neck, 13, of the
tail, 1 inch. This serpent appears to
3 ft. 8 inch.
trunk, 2, of the root of the possess uncommonly acute
hearing, and turns its head in the direction of the sound.
LEPTOPHIS CAUDALINEATUS, N. S.
SYN.-Ahætula caudolineata, Gray: Illust, Ind. Zool.
Head, trunk, and tail above light brownish bronze, the scales with black edges, on the posterior half of the trunk four parallel black lines, terminating at the root of the tail, from whence commences a single central black line; sides metallic mother-of-pearl, from a short distance behind the head bordered by two parallel black lines of which the lower, the broader, covers the lower half of the last series of scales and the lateral part of the scuta; both the lines continue to the apex of the tail. Lips, throat and abdominal surface pale metallic citrine ; the tail beneath with a black central line. Iris golden, dotted with brown; pupil round; tongue bluish white, the forked part black.
Young. Upper parts of the body Indian red, with metallic reflections.
Scuta 183 to 188, Scutella 105 to 110.