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boidal form with rounded points, disposed on the anterior part in 25,
on the posterior part in 17, longitudinal series. The tail is robust,
tapering, and prehensile. In the Malayan countries this species occurs
in numbers in rivers, estuaries, and occasionally along the sea coasts.
It feeds upon fishes. Single individuals measuring between 3 and 4
feet in length, are of very rare occurrence. Of a great number the
largest was of the following dimensions :
Length of the head,

O ft. 1 inch.
Ditto ditto trunk,

2 3
Ditto ditto tail,

0 7

2 ft. 113 inch. Circumference of the neck, 15, of the trunk, 33, of the root of the tail, 19 inch. It is of peaceful habits; the female brings forth 8 living young, each of which measures from 7 to 7) inches in length.

Syn.-Scheuchzer, Pl. 660, l'ig. 1, (young.)

Seba, II. Tab. 12. F. 1;-T. 13, F. 1;--T. 21, F. 3, (young.)
Coluber buccatus, Linné,
Coluber monilis, Linné.
Coluber subalbidus, Boddaert, apud Gmelin.
Le Demicollier, Lacépède.
Vipernkoptige Natter, Merrem.
Coluber buccatus, apud Shaw.
Russell, II, Pl. 33, (young.)
Coluber viperinus, Shaw.
Coluber buccatus, Daudin.
Coluber horridus, Daulin.
Echidna semifasciata, Merrem.

Ilomalopsis buccata, Schlegel. Young. Ground colour, white or buff, becoming brownish on the crown shields, hindhead and lips ; on the muzzle an angular mark, with the apex between the frontals, Van Dyke brown or chestnut; an oblique streak proceeds from the eye over the cheek, joining a broad cervical band, which, sending a narrow straight line to the occipitals, gives the upper part of the head a heart-shaped outline ; the back and tail with numerous broad transversal brown bands, between which the ground colour appears in the shape of white, often interrupted, warrower bands, and of a white spot in the centre and on each side of the brown bands. The latter reach but as far as the lowest four or five series of scales on the sides, which as well as the throat and abdomen are white; on each

side of every third or fourth scutum a brown spot ; scutella black, or white, closely spotted with black.

Adult. The livery of the young indistinct : the ground colour of the upper parts pale greyish brown or olive; the bands of a darker shade of the same colour, edged with black ; sides and beneath impure buff, the brown marks pale. Pupil black, elliptical, vertically closed by the light; tongue small whitish.

Scuta 155 to 167, Scutella 73 to 89. HABIT.--Pinang, Malayan Peninsula.

Java. From the small, nearly vertically opening nostrils, proceeds a furrow downwards to the lower margin of the nasal. The anterior frontal is either entire and of a large rhombic shape, or consisting of two triangular shields; the frenal is elongated, rectangular, the small eye is situated more laterally than in the preceding species, and surrounded by two post-orbitals, one præ-orbital, and two infra-orbitals. The seven anterior upper labials are very high, the posterior five are double ; of sixteen or seventeen lower labials, the nine anterior are the highest. The last tooth in the upper jaw is furrowed, and as well as the 3 or 4 anterior palatal and inferior maxillary teeth, longer than the rest. The folds of gingiva enveloping the teeth are very ample, and contain in addition to the fixed, numerous, 5 to 6 deep, accessory teeth. The chin is covered by four pairs of elongated scales, decreasing in length from the centre towards the labials. The scales of the trunk are rhombic, imbricate, slightly keeled and finely lineated, disposed on the anterior part in 39, on the posterior in 25 longitudinal series. The tail is robust, tapering and somewhat prehensile. The largest individual observed was of the following dimensions : Length of the head,

O ft.
Ditto ditto trunk,

1 11
Ditto ditto tail,

0 7

17 inch,

2 ft. 71 inch. Circumference of the neck, 2, of the trunk, 34, of the root of the tail, 1 inch.

In the valleys of Pinang and on the opposite continent, this species is numerous in streamlets, tanks and in the irrigated fields,


where it feeds on fishes. The young ones

very gentle, and the old but seldom bite. In their movements they are sluggish, and on dry land very awkward. The female brings forth six or eight living young at the time, each between 7 and 8 inches in length.

Hypsirhina, Wagler. Resembling Homalopsis in the form and situation of the nostrils, the integuments and general appearance of the head, trunk, and tail; but the dorsal scales are smooth, and the labials are square, equal ; (frenal, one.)

HOMALOPSIS SIEBOLDI, Schelgel. Syn.-Seba, II, Tab. 46, Fig. 2?

Young. Ground colour, white, which on the upper part of the head appears in the shape of two lines diverging from the muzzle over the eyes to the sides of the head. From each side of the vertical shield a line diverging towards the hind head, where it branches in two, sending a portion transversely to the throat, and another to the upper part of the neck joining under an angle that of the opposite side. On the trunk and tail the ground colour shows itself as numerous narrow, transversal bands, which on the centre are frequently interrupted and placed in quincunx series ; on the sides the bands are bipartite. The intervals between the ground colour are chestnut with dark brown edges. The lips and the abdominal surface white with numerous pale brown irregular spots. Iris greyish with a transversal black bar; pupil elliptical, tongue white.*

Scuta 155, Scutella 48.

Habit.—Malayan Peninsula.

Bengal. The description is taken from a solitary young individual, which was killed in Province Wellesley. It measured,

* Adult.--A preserved specimen in the Museum of the Asiatic Society differs from the young in having the head above of a uniform colour, while the rest of the peculiar design is retained. The ground colour is yellowish white; the brown of the young is faded to a dull lead grey.-Scuta 156, Scutella 55.--Dimensions : head 03 inch : trunk 1 ft. 89 inch ; tail 3] inch = 2 ft. 1 inch.-Circumference of the neck, 1%, of the trunk, 2%, of the root of the tail, 18 inch. The locality from whence this specimen was obtained, is not known : Bengal is given by M, Schlegel.

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8 inches. Circumference of the neck, ž, of the trunk, š, of the root of the tail, 4 inch.

In livery and in general appearance this species resembles H. buccata, from which it differs in the following particulars. Both the upper and the lower rostral shield are very small; the anterior frontals are niuch broader than long, each like a small transversely placed cone, surrounded by the nasal, (with a slit towards the lower margin,) the tetragonal frenal, and behind, by the frontal. The vertical in extent nearly equals each of the short occipitals. The eye is rather large, prominent, surrounded by a single elongated, arched præ-orbital and two post-orbitals, of which the inferior is the larger, bordering the fifth and sixth upper labials. Of the latter there are eight on each side : the fourth borders the eye below, the two posterior are broken up in small pieces. Of the 11 or 12 pairs of lower labials, the 4 nearest the angle of the mouth are the smallest. The chin is covered by three pairs of oval shields, of which the anterior is the largest, and by some minute scales. The mouth is small; the teeth minute, uniform, except the last upper maxillary tooth, which is the longest with a furrow on the convex margin. The back is slightly angular in the centre, much depressed ; the sides bulging; the abdomen narrow. The anterior part of the trunk is covered with 29, the posterior with 19 series of small smooth, imbricate scales, all rhombic with rounded points. The tail is tapering and compressed.

Syn.-Russell, I. Pl. 30. Mutta Pam, Ally Pam.

Hydrus enhydris, Schneider.
Enhydris coerulea, Latreille.
Hydrus atrocæruleus, Shaw.
Coluber pythonissa, Daudin.
Homalopsis aer,* Boie.
Hypsirhina, Wagler.
Potamophis lushingtonii, Cantor.
Homalopsis aer, Schlegel.

Homalopsis olivaceus, Cantor. * This specific name is singularly ill chosen, as the denomination “ular ayer," (water-serpent,) is applied by the Malays to all fresh water serpents. The word "ayer" applied to a single species is as eligible us would be aqua," " eau"or


Iridescent dark greenish-or brownish-olive above; the scales edged with black ; in some two parallel light greyish lines from between the eyes to the tip of the tail; the lower half of the sides pale greenish or brownish-grey; lips and throat white, edged and dotted with black. Abdominal surface white or buff, with a greenish or brownish line on each side, and a black central line dividing the scuta and scutella. Iris greyish or pale olive; pupil circular ; tongue whitish.

Young : with lighter and more strongly iridescent colours than the adult.

Scuta 118 to 167 ; Scutella 53 to 71. HABIT.-Malayan Peninsula and Islands.

Java, Tenasserim, Bengal, Coromandel. The head is small, ovate, scarcely distinct; the nostrils are hemispherical, with a slit towards the external margin of the shield ; the single anterior frontal is small, rhomboidal, much broader than long ; the eye is rather large, prominent, lateral and surrounded by two rather broad post-orbitals, one or two narrow præ-orbitals, and beneath by the fourth upper labial ; the frenal is small, rhombic. The external margins of the occipitals are bordered by three elongated shields, and each temple by five similar. The eight upper labials are larger than the ten lower. The chin is covered by two central pairs of elongated shields, between which and the labials is, on each side, a single very elongated shield. The mouth is small, the teeth minute, numerous and equal, except the last tooth of the upper jaw, which is longer than the rest and furrowed. The trunk is very robust, broadly depressed ; the sides obliquely compressed, and the abdomen very narrow, flattened. The scales are broad rhomboidal with rounded points, slightly imbricate, and disposed on the anterior part in 25, in the middle in 21, and near the tail in 19 longitudinal series. The tail is very slender, somewhat compressed, tapering and prehensile. The largest individual was of the following dimensions :Length of the head,

O ft. 1 inch.
Ditto ditto trunk,

Ditto ditto tail,



2 ft. Circumference of the neck, 14, of the trunk, 2, of the root of the tail, inch.

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