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history of Sakya, I find the name "Nulita," a spot near Rajagriha where he expounded some of his doctrines, but here again I am at a loss as no such name now exists, and all knowledge of Budhist history as far as regards the people of Magadha, has long since been lost to them.
There is a place called Juydeespur about two miles from Bargaon, where there are the remains of a large tumulus, and a very fine image of Buddha; this spot takes us even further out of the proper direction, as regards Rajagriha, which is nearly due north and south, distant however about 7 miles.
With this list of noted spots before us, it is difficult to decide which is the one called Na-lo,* if the term "tower" were only applied in one sense, we should fix upon Girryek, but it is evident that it applies to the tumuli or chaityas, and there must have been more than one at this place in Fa-Hian's time, though certainly it is a very remarkable object, being seen for many miles, its direction from Behar as well as with Rajagriha is correct, the distance is a little less, being between 6 and 7 miles, upon the whole, however, I am inclined to fix Na-lo here. We shall now proceed to Rajagriha, "the new town of the Royal residence." "One yojun west of Na-lo, brings you to "the new town of the Royal residence." This town was constructed by the king A-tche-chi: it has two monasteries; on leaving it at the western gate, at three hundred paces you come to a tower, lofty, grand, majestic, and beautiful, which A-tché-chi erected when he obtained some of the relics of Foè."
I here commence my own route to trace that of Fa-Hian; it was circuitous owing to the low land beneath the hills, which you have to your left hand about a mile distant, the whole way up to the modern village and site of ancient Rajagriha. An immense embankment called "Assurein" still exists, as well as extensive mounds of bricks and rubbish; sufficient remains of the citadel to show its form, a parallelogram
In the Páli Buddhistical Annals Sákya is stated to have halted at Nálanda, one yojana distant from Rajagaha, when en route from the latter place to Pataligámo (Pataliputra). In the Na lo of our Chinese author, there is little doubt that we have the transcription of Nálanda; the original word being, as is not unusual in such cases, lopped of a syllable or two. This identification is further confirmed by the circumstance of Sakya Muni holding in this place a discourse with his disciple Sariputra (Che li foé), whom he may be supposed to have fallen in with at his native village upon the occasion of this journey. Na lo is called by Hiuan Thsang, a subsequent Chinese visitor, Kia lo pi na kia. The last two syllables are no doubt the transcription of nagara.-Eds.
with numerous bastions; but these latter appear to have been the work of later times, indeed a story is told that Shershah whilst erecting these works, was ridiculed by a milkmaid, who showed him that the adjacent hills completely commanded it, (which they do with artillery). He then abandoned it.
About the distance westward described by Fa-Hian, there exists a tumulus called the "awa," or Punzawa, which is no doubt the "tower," (chaitya) where Buddha's relics were placed by A-tché-chi; Buchanan vol. I. pp. 88, 89, describes this remarkable mound which want of leisure prevented me closely inspecting. This is, no doubt, the chaitya erected over Sákya's relics, built by Ajata-suttu, when he obtained them from Kama Rupa. See history of Sakya's death, vol. XIX. Asiatic Researches. Here then we find one instance of the of our traveller; let us follow him into "the valley of the five hills."
Chap. XXVIII. On leaving the town on the south side, at the distance of four " li" you come to a valley which leads to the "five hills" these five hills form a girdle, like the walls of a town: this is the ancient town of the king "Ping-Cha" (the old Rajgriha). From the east to the west is six "li," and from the north to the south seven or eight; this is the place where "Che-li-foe" and "Mou lian" first met O pi (af Asvajít). At the north-east angle of the town the ancients erected a chapel in the garden, where An-pho-ló invited Foe and twelve hundred of his disciples to do them honor; this chapel still exists. The town is entirely deserted and uninhabited."
From Rajgriha, it is about a mile to the entrance of the valley where the hot springs flow, and where a fair is held every third year, having an intercalary month, it lasts during the whole of such month. at whatsoever season it may fall; the fair was full during my visit. In May various virtues are ascribed to these springs; barren women resort to them from far and near. Several neat temples have been built within the last century. There are some springs under the eastern hill of the pass venerated by the Muhammadans, who in olden times, built a durgah which is much frequented.
The appearance of this valley and hills is very striking, every peak has a name, and a small Jain temple crowning it, this sect holding the whole neighbourhood sacred, which is very remarkable.
There are two old works in existence, describing this curious tract of country, called the Rajgriha Muhatma: one belongs to the Hindus, the other to the Jains, which I am told, to be widely different. I hope to be able to procure a good copy of each and to compare them. I have had occasion to observe, that the Jains hold most of the places, supposed to be of Buddhist origin, sacred, to wit, the caves of Kundgiri in Cuttuck, Girinar in Kutch, &c. &c.
It is fully two miles or "four li" to the site of the old town which is now called " Hansu Taur," this must have been a very large place when in its glory, and (as described) is skirted by hills, five of which are more conspicuous than the rest, and are called respectively Rutna Girri, Bipla Girri, Baibhar Girri, Sona Girri, and Udhaya Girri, reference to the annexed sketch map will better explain the situation of all I shall have to describe. To proceed, first of all, as to the "chapel" in the northern hill, on the left or west side of the pass is a chamber called Sône Bhundar of precisely the same shape as those of Barabur. There are sockets to admit of timber roofing on the exterior of the cave, and there have been buildings extending to some distance in front it would be interesting to clear the rubbish here. There are several short inscriptions and some of the shell-shape, one has some resemblance to Chinese, (vide plate) there are no Páli letters, but the cave has been sadly ill used by a zemindar, who tried to blow it up with powder many years ago, hoping to find hidden treasure, and a large piece of rock has been broken away at the very spot where we should have expected to find the inscription,-the rock is soft and easily injured, there are some rude outlines of Budhas cut on it there is a handsome Jain (miniature) temple, much mutilated, which is also remarkable, for each of the four figures has a vahun or cognizance, the same as those of the Gyani Buddhas, on similar temples or stones of undoubted Buddha origin, unfortunately there is no inscription to help us, (see plate)-this cave is venerated by both Hindus and Jains. Whether it be the temple Fa-Hian alludes to, it is hard to say, for there are remains in the north-east corner likewise.
To the south of this cave near the centre of the town? is a high tumulus, the site of a Dagope or Chaitya, on which is a small Jain temple, it is called by the Hindus Munniarkoop, and by the Jains Nizmile-koop, each have their fables connected with it. From this elevated