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Hian's time, cannot for this reason be that alluded to, but there have been other towers, of which nothing but the bare traces now remain. By the fourth tower, (upon equally if not stronger grounds) must have been meant that at Koosha Vihara in Assam, indeed we know that it was there that Sakya obtained “Nirvana" (died). This happened beneath two Sál trees; we are further told that a Dagope or Chaitya was erected there over his ashes, and which were subsequently distributed over the country, and for which armies were even brought into the field. See life of Sakya, Vol. XIX. Researches, p. 317. I do not think the text warrants our supposing that four great towers were erected in commemoration of the four principal events of Budha's life at Gaya.

We must now turn to Chapter XXXIII, in which we learn further of the vicinity of Budh Gaya.

“ From the Pei-to” tree you proceed three lí, to a hill called the cock's foot (grigieu?) “Kookootpada," it is here that the great Kya Che (Maha Kasyapa) pierced the mountain for the purpose of entering it, and suffered none else to enter the same way. At a considerable distance from this is a lateral hole, in which is the entire body of Kya

scene of this event in Sákya's life, as the following couplet from the Lalita vistóra will testify:

वाराणसीं गमिष्यामि गत्वा वै काशिका पुरी।

धर्म चक्रं प्रवर्तिथ्ये लोकेषु प्रतिवर्तितं । “I will go to Benares; having arrived at the city of Kashi, I will turn the wheel of the law, which is revolving among mankind.” (J. A. S. vol. VI. p. 572.)

The tower to commemorate Sákya's apotheosis was unquestionably, on the banks of the Gunduk, in the neighbourhood of Bettiah ; and not in Assam as Tibetan writers allege. Fa-hian names the place Kiu i na kié, and Hiuan thsang, Kiu chi na kie lo, an obvious transcription of gfxant Kusinagara. Mr. Liston in J. A. S. vol. VI. p. 477, describes some Buddhist remains at a village named Kussia, in Gorak pore, consisting of a pyramidal mound of bricks and other objects which seem well worthy of further investigation. These have reference, according to popular tradition, to Muta Koonr, which Mr. Prinsep took to be a corruption of Kumára, the god of war,-'the defunct Kumara.' Professor Wilson, however, thinks that Mata Kuanr, the • dead prince,' applies to Sákya Sinha. The only difficulty in regard to this latter ascription is, that the term prince is never applied by Buddhists to Sákya, after his adoption of ascetic life. It is to be hoped that further enquiry will clear up this point. The subject of antiquities is by no means exhausted in the neighbourhood of the Gunduk-the Hi lian of Fa-hian, (ffty hiranya, gold,) the Hiranna-wattiya of the Pali annals, and without doubt the Erranoboas of the Greeks.-Eds.

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Che. The earth outside the hole is that over which Kya Che washed his hands : when the people of the country are troubled with headache, they rub themselves with this earth and the pain goes.”

As the Pei-to is the starting point, and no particular direction mentioned, I assume that the cluster of hills at the southern extremity of Gaya proper, called Burrumjooeen are those alluded to, although the distance of three “li” is too short by half or more. The old town of Gaya in which is the Vishnupad, stands on a rock, a spur of the larger hills, under which the Hindoos believe, that the demon Gaya Asura is confined by the weight of Vishnu's foot.

By Kya Che the translators from the Chinse text conjecture, that Maha Kasyapa is meant,* but I am inclined to think, that it is this said Gaya Asur of the Hindoo legends. The absurd story of all the divinities failing to subdue the monster till Vishnu put him down with his foot, appears to me to be an allegory expressive of the final triumph of the Vishnuvites over the Buddhists, Vedantis, Saivas and other sects. The first and last named must have predominated here from the numerous lingas and yonis of every age and form, as well as fragments of Budhist carvings. This subject is worthy of consideration, we have the common legend as above quoted, we have also Fa-Hian's testimony. As to what existed fourteen hundred and fifty years ago, he seems to speak of Kya Che as a law-giver of his own sect (Budhist), and does not lead us to suppose Gaya to have been in other hands than those of Buddhists.—“Kya Che’ seems more to resemble the word “Keechuc" or demon than

any

other. I should be inclined to think that allusion is to a story having a common origin with both sects-Brahminists and Buddhists, who in all probability, only differed (in early times) in points of doctrine and sacrificial practice. Orthodox Hindoos only acknowledge a very small space at Gaya to be sacred for them, which is alluded to in the Purans and in the Mahabharut-this information obtained from a learned Pandit, from the outskirts of Calcutta, who told me, that not more than two or three of the forty-five spots, at which most pilgrims offer the funeral cake, i. e. perform the “pind,” are proper, the rest belonging to the Buddhists and Jains; for instance, the hill called Burrum Jooeen, before described, is properly Bruhm Jain. The very one, we may suppose, Fa-Hian to be describing, on the top is a

* There is no doubt upon this point.-Eds.

modern temple, near to it are two masses of rock, between which some pilgrims and others force themselves, believing that none but true born can accomplish the feat, in other words, those who fail are considered bastards.

With regard to the custom mentioned of people using the earth where “ Kya Che” washed his hands, as a remedy for head-ache, &c. the practice still exists at the banks of a tank under the hill called Rookhmooni and close to the Akhayah But tree, where the final "pind" ceremony is performed--but to return to Fa-Ilian.

“ In this hill also to the west, is the abode of the Arhans; the clergy of Reason, (a sect) come from all kingdoms of those parts to worship Kya Che; those who come with their minds embarrassed, see during the night time, the Arhans coming to discourse with them, and to solve their difficulties, which having done they disappear again forth with : the forest which covers this hill is very thick ; it abounds with lions, tigers, and wolves, so that one cannot travel there but with fear.”

With regard to there having been habitations on the hill, to the westward, there are ample traces both to the west and to the north and east, that they were covered with jungle even as late as when we took the country, and swarmed with wild animals of prey are facts well known, though there is scarce a stump of a shrub to be seen now nor on any of the hills within twenty miles, owing to the great demand for fuel; there are still leopards, wolves and hyenas, and occasionally a tiger has been seen ; but the lion is an animal unknown in these regions, except by name as a cognizance of the gods.

It will have been remarked that Fa-Hian talks of a peculiar sect as possessing the hill. I have already mentioned, that it is supposed to have been a place of Jain worship, may not then the Jains have been in existence at that period as distinct from the Budhists ? at any rate the fact of different sects existing in the fourth century of our era, is hereby established. I have now concluded the pilgrim's journal as far as it relates to the Buddhist localities of zillahs Behar and Patna. I have tried to follow him as closely as possible, and I trust I have done so successfully. I could have wished to have been able to examine several spots around Gaya, particularly the Morah Tal hills, but this could not be effected. With the other places I am familiar enough, though I could still, no doubt, glean much more instructive matter if I

had the opportunity ; but nothing short of excavating the mounds or tumuli (an expensive operation) would with any probability of success lead to satisfactory results.

I must once more remark on the silence of Fa-Hian regarding the places which we might suppose to have belonged to sects, perhaps anti-Buddhist, he must have travelled past, such us Kundilpoor (Burgoun) Barabur and its ancient caves—which, in Sakya's time, must have been used by his followers, the inscriptions themselves point to their having been excavated for Buddhist ascetics at a very early period.

Inferences.

From the foregoing we draw several useful inferences as regards this country, at the close of the fourth century for instance, that a belief existed of four previous Buddhas, a point I believe to have been disputed; secondly, that several of the great events of Sakya's life, both probable and improbable, were believed in at that early period of our era ; thirdly, that

up to the same time Buddhism was flourishing and its votaries unmolested ; fourthly, that holy places now claimed by the Hindoos and Jains, were in those days considered as sacred to Buddhism. These are the leading points, no doubt that a careful examination of the whole narrative would lead to a clearer view than has hitherto been had of the state of India at the commencement of the Christian era. We must however, be constantly at a loss in tracing places from the curious orthography of the Chinese lauguage,—the same remark is applicable to the Tibetan and Burmese volumes, and this is a sad obstacle. I would fain hope, that some of our brethren in China may interest themselves in the search for works in that language concerning India, and in preparing fair translations, which can alone be done by persons on the spot; and it is further to be hoped, that those who form the forthcoming mission to Tibet, will not lose the opportunity of searching for ancient Sanscrit works in the monasteries of that country, works known to exist and which had Mr. Csoma Korosi been spared to us, we should ere this have possessed in original or by copy; but this is a digression which my readers must pardon, and I herewith take leave of the subject.

Some Account of the Town and Palace of Feerozabad, in the vicinity of

Dehli, with Introductory Remarks on the sites of other Towns. By HENRY COPE, Secretary Archæological Society of Dehli, and IIENRY Lewis, Deputy Commissary of Ordnance and Member of the Society.*

In no country of the world, or at least in no country with whose history we are sufficiently acquainted to pronounce authoritatively, are there so many monuments of the inordinate vanity of a race of foreign conquerors as in India ;t and in no part of this vast empire has that vanity been more pre-eminently displayed than in the immediate vicinity of the modern town of Shahjehanabad, the last, and probably, the greatest specimen of the vain-glorious spirit of its founder, certainly that to which has been secured a more lengthened existence than was enjoyed by any of the towns and citadels that went before. These were at times the capitals of nearly all India, at others merely the chief cities of a territory smaller than many zumeendarees of the present day, yet all are spoken of by the host of historians who have written about them, as the glory and pride of the land ; the centre of civilization, and in turn the scenes of the most mighty revolutions which have befallen the mightiest empire in the world. At one time we have the Prince in power, or the founder of a new dynasty, seeking the highest available hill (as in the case of Prithu Raj's palace and Toglukabad) whereon to erect his castle, if not his town, as the site best suited for defence ; at another selecting the plains at the foot of those hills, (as Jehanpunnah, and old Dehli,) or the banks of the River Jumna, (as an Kelokheree, Mobarikabad and Feerozabad,) on which to locate himself on account may be of their superior advantages in regard to the vast amount of supplies required for such an immense population ; but almost every one of them was actuated by the same all-predominant feeling of pride, all seemed anxious to hand their names down to posterity as the founders of new cities, while some

Read before the Archæological Society of Dehli, at their meeting of the 9th August, and communicated by that Society.

+ The British are specially excluded from this remark, were they to leave India at the present moment, they would leave every little behind them of an architectural character that would stand the ravages of thirty years.-H. C.-H. L.

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