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tail, and wing-tips, pure white; the remainder black, a little tinged with brown upon the back : whereas the females have the neck, breast, and abdomen, also black. Raffles described the young male only, with “ back, wings and tail, of a dark brown; the belly of the same colour, mixed with white; and the wing and tail-feathers all tipped with white at their points." The Society's female has a small black patch on its outermost tail-feather. Size rather large, intermediate to B. pica and B. rhinoceros, with proportionally long and broad cuneated tail. Colour of the beak and casque dusky, the former laterally whitish towards its base. Throat moderately well feathered. Inhabits the Malayan peninsula and Sumatra. Adult male and female, from Malacca; presented by Mr. E. Lindstedt.
13. B. exarhætus, Reinwardt. Size small; the tail but little graduated : throat but partially feathered. Colour wholly black, glossed on the upperparts with green : the bill and casque pale, with three deep longitudinal channels or furrows. Inhabits the Moluccas. Specimen presented by the Batavian Society.
14. B. panayensis, Scopoli. This is an anomalous-looking little species ; and the Society's only specimen accords with Sonnerat's figure, assigned by him as that of the female bird, whereas, from analogy, I think it is more likely to represent the male ; but it differs from that figure in having the throat as well as the cheeks black, (as in B. cavatus and B. hydrocorax,) and in the tail being black at the base as well as tip, with a fulvous-white cross band occupying its subterminal fourth. Au reste, the crown, neck, and under-parts are fulvescent-white, and the upper-parts brown-black, with slight pale margins to the primaries. Casque simple, smooth, compressed and truncate to the front: the upper mandible transversely indented, and marked alternately with black and yellow; the lower with similar furrows, placed much more obliquely. In the other sex, according to Sonnerat, the head and neck are black.
Inhabits the Moluccas. Specimen from the former Macao Museum, presented by R. Inglis, Esq.
In B. comatus, if not also in B. panayensis, a marked dissimilarity of the sexes is observable; and the same prevails in the three species next in order, which are nearly allied together. These have the throat naked and distensible; with the skin of a bright colour. The first alone has no trace of casque, beyond a slight bulging at the base of its upper mandible.
15. B. nipalensis, Hodgson : vide XII, 989. Size very large. The female wholly black, except the tips of the wings and tail, which are white : whereas the male has the head, neck, and under-parts, deep ferruginous, passing to maronne on the abdomen and thighs. Young coloured like the adults. Upper mandible with numerous broad transverse channels, each coloured black along its posterior half or more. This great species inhabits the S. E. Himalaya, also the hill ranges of Assam, and of Munneepore. I have retained an adult male and female, from Munneepore, presented by Capt. Guthrie : and a young male, presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq.
The two next, with certain other species, as B. cassidix of Celebes and the Moluccas, and B. ruficollis of New Guinea, are very closely allied together. They have a peculiar wreathed or plaited casque, flat or a little bulged in some, more inflated in others : and the females are wholly black with a white tail ; the males having the head and neck either uniform rufous (as in B. ruficollis), or the occiput and nape, with median line of the crown, are deep maronne, the sides of the head and front of the neck being yellowish-white.
16. B. pusaran, Raffles : B. ruficollis apud nos, XII, 176: described in XII, 990. Size of B. rhinoceros ; with the base of both mandibles transversely ridged in adults: in the full grown young, these lateral ridges of the beak do not appear till after three or four corrugations are exhibited on the casque, prior to which the bill much resembles that of B. nipalensis of corresponding age, except that the bulge in place of the casque is more decided.* Inhabits Sylhet, Arracan, the Tenasserim provinces, the Malayan peninsula, and Sumatra. We have two adult males, from Arracan; presented by Capt. Phayre: adult female, and young male, from Malacca, presented by E. Lindstedt, Esq. : and an adult male, with unusually flat casque (described in XII, 991); presented by J. Middleton, Esg.
17. B. plicatus, Latham, Shaw (nec Drapiez, which is B. ruficapillus, Vieillot): B. obscurus, Gmelin ; B. subruficollis, nobis, XII, 177: described in XII, 990, Resembles the last, but is smaller, with never any lateral ridges to the mandibles : the gular skin is said to be blue, instead of yellow as in the other. I have only seen it from Arracan and the Tenasserim provinces, in which latter territory it would seem to be very common. We have a male from Arracan, presented by Capt. Phayre; a Tenasserim male, procured by the late Dr. Helfer; and a Tenasserim female, presented by the Rev. J. Barbe.
The last upon the list is the most remarkable of all the oriental Hornbills : having a short bill, but little curved, surmounted by a moderately high casque, tolerably broad, and abruptly truncate in front, where it presents a very considerable thickness of massive bone; the throat, neck, and interscapulary region are quite naked; and the middle tail-feathers are greatly elongated, being twice as long as the rest.
18. B. galeatus, Lin. ; vide XII, 997. Size of B. rhinoceros ; and colour brownish-black, with white belly, wing-tips, and shoulders of wings internally ; tail of a buff or drab-white, each feather having a subterminal black band ; the crested occiput black, with ferruginous on the sides of the head : beak
* For notices of the mode of growth and successive replacement of these wreaths and ridges, vide XII, 990, 992.
and casque coral-red, the front of the casque and terminal half of the mandibles yellowish. Young browner, with a tinge of rufous on the breast : the bill and incipient casque wholly pale yellow. Inhabits the Malayan peninsula and archipelago. Adult and young (now in very bad order); presented by J. Middleton, Esq. These specimens, with the very large B. cavatus presented by D. McCosh, a Rhinoceros Hornbill since replaced, and to a less extent our B. hydrocorax, were much injured by exposure to the dust and attacks of insects, prior to my taking charge of the museum. Our other specimens of this genus are, without exception, in excellent order.
Genus Irrisor, Lesson, vide XIV, 188.
I. erythrorhynchos ; Upupa erythrorhynchos, Latham. From S. Africa. Specimen presented by Lord A. Hay.
Genus Upupa. Lin. (as restricted).
1. U. epops, Lin. European Hoopoe. Common in Northern India, Bengal, Arracan, &c.; and occurs rarely in the Nilgherries. Two specimens, from the neighbourhood : another pair (very rufescent), from the Tenasserim provinces; presented by the Rev. J. Barbe: vide XV, 11.*
2. U. senegalensis (?), Swainson: U. minor apud Jerdon : vide XIV, 189, Common in the peninsula of India. Two specimens, from Goomsoor ; presented by Capt. Malcolmson.
3. U, minor, Shaw. From S. Africa, Specimen presented by Lord A. Hay.
Of the great genus Buceros, we accordingly now possess 44 mounted specimens, pertaining to 18 species. In the Catalogue published in the Journal for 1841, p. 652, only 3 specimens are enumerated, viz. B. hydrocorax and B. panayensis, from the dispersed Macao museum, and the B. cavatus presented by Dr. McCosh : but the following Malayan specimens, presented by J. Middleton, Esq. (late of the Hindu College), were also in the museum when I took charge of the Society's collections, in September of that year,—B. rhinoceros, B. bicolor, B. pusaran, and adult and young of B. galeatus. We had thus not a single Indian specimen of this genus, unless the Assamese example of B. cavatus be so regarded : and all the large specimens, except B. pusaran and B. bicolor, were considerably injured by exposure on top of the glass-cases in the (then) bird-room. At present we cannot boast a single African species, and are poor in those inhabiting the more distant countries of the Eastern Archipelago.
The species of Hornbill inhabiting the peninsula of India, are only four in number; and I doubt much whether any additional species occurs in Ceylon. Three of these-B. pica, B. birostris, and B. gingalensis,--are confined in their distribution to India proper, the second only extending its range to Bengal; while the third has not elsewhere been observed than in Malabar and Ceylon. The great B. cavatus is alone common to both sides of the Bay of Bengal; continuing its range southward to Sumatra (where noticed by Raffles), if not further. Along the sub-Himalayan region, in Nepal, Bengal, Assam, Sylhet, Arracan, and the Tenasserim provinces, B. pica is replaced by B. albirostris : and in the S. E. Himalaya, the range of the great B. nipalensis commences, and extends eastward at least to Munneepore. There, most probably, and certainly in the vicinity of Cherra Poonjee, B. pusaran occurs, and ranges southward through all the intervening countries to the Malayan peninsula and Sumatra ; and in Arracan and Tenasserim there is also the B. plicatus. The only species I have seen from the last named territories are B. cavatus, B. albirostris, B. pusaran, and B. plicatus. In the Malayan peninsula the species are particularly numerous : besides B. cavatus and B. pusaran, there are the remarkable B. galeatus, the otherwise remarkable B. rhinoceros, and B. intermedius, B. bicolor, B. malayanus, B. carinatus, and B. comatus,-all in the Society's museum; and also, it would seem, the B. corrugatus, Tem. (v. rugosus, Begbie, described in Ann. Mag. N. H. 1846, p. 404.*) With the last named I am unacquainted; nor have I much information respecting the distribution of these birds in the islands.
* I have seen no Hoopoes from the Malayan peninsula ; nor is this genus mentioned in the Sumatran and Javanese catalogues of Sir Stamford Raffles and Dr. Horsfield,
The most anomalous species of this great genus known to me, are the long-legged B. abyssinicus (or Abba Gumba of Bruce), upon which M. Lesson founds his ill-constructed hybrid name Bucorvus, and the Malayan B. galeatus. The only further dismemberments noticed in the second edition of Mr. G. R. Gray’s ‘List of the Genera of Birds,' are Toccus, Lesson, founded on B. erythrorhynchos, Brisson, and Euryceros, Lesson, founded on a species named Prevostii by that naturalist. A good group is however formed by the species with well developed casque, the hindmost portion of which rises high above the coronal feathers; as typified by B. cavatus, B. rhinoceros, B. hydrocorax, and B. pica. Another good group consists of those with wreathed casque, naked throat, and dissimilar plumage in the sexes ; as typified by B. cassidix and B. ruficollis : B. nipalensis ranging here as an aberrant species. And the rest, while according throughout in having the
“ This species is 2! ft. long. Body, wings, and tail, black, with the exception of the cheeks, shoulders, and throat, which are dirty white, mixed with cinereous. One-third of the tail from the tip smoky-white; helmet and pouch-like protuberance under the throat crimson, the former furrowed with three deep indentations. Upper mandible yellowishbrown, inclining to white at the tip: the basal half of the lower mandible ochraceous and transversely caniculate ; remainder of the mandible dirty white.” -- Begbie.
casque, when present, low and compressed, with its hindmost portion rising gradually from the forehead and more or less concealed by the feathers, differ so variously in other respects that no two before me can be specially approximated together. Still, an examination of the remaining species of the genus might elucidate their mutual affinities.
For the above reason, with the view of tracing those affinities, our desiderata comprise all species not included in the foregoing list. Of those of India, we have not the young of B. cavatus, nor of B. pica ; nor the young female of B. nipalensis : and more specimens of B. gingalensis would be acceptable. And of the species inhabiting the Malayan peninsula, we want B. corrugatus ; the young of B. comatus and of B. bicolor ; and good series of B. intermedius and B. nigrirostris, with males of B. malayanus : also, especially, good specimens of B. galeatus ; and any species procured in the Archipelago.
Addendum to Report on the Sciuride, p. 864 et seq., ante. In a letter just received from Mr. Jerdon, now stationed at Tellicherry, on the Malabar coast, that gentleman remarks—“ With regard to the Squirrels, we have, of course, the large one (purpureus), sometimes all red, sometimes with a considerable mixture of black; but never nearly all black, and never with tuftless
We have also tristriatus to the exclusion of palmarum, throughout the whole Malabar coast from Cape Comorin, only extending to the forests at the edge of the ghâts above. Throughout all the Carnatic, Mysore, Hydrabad, &c. only palmarum. I suspect the tristriatus is never found far from forest country. The trilineatus occurs, I find, in some of the forests of the ghâts as well as in the Nilgherries."